List of STUDY Papers on Nardostachys jatamansi

1.    CNS activity, Animal data
Valeranone prolonged barbiturate anesthesia, impaired rotarod performance, inhibited electroshock convulsions, and potentiated the hypothermic effects of reserpine. 8 Limited results from behavioral tests revealed that an extract from N. jatamansi exhibited significant antidepressant activity.

2. A 15-day treatment with an alcoholic root extract of N. jatamansi caused an overall increase in the levels of central monoamines and inhibitory amino acids, including a change in the levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, gamma-amino butyric acid, and taurine in rat brain.

Pretreatment with an alcoholic extract dosed at 250 mg/kg of N. jatamansi for 15 days protected rats against focal ischemia caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The protective effect may be associated with improving glutathione content, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and activity on the Na+/K+ ATPase and catalase enzyme systems.

3. Antifungal activity, In vitro data

N. jatamansi essential oil demonstrated fungistatic activity against Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus niger , and Fusarium oxysporum .

 Lipid-lowering activity
Animal data

A 50% ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (tuber) and N. jatamansi (whole plant) elevated the HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. There also was a reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol/phospholipids.

Other pharmacological studies

 4. A hepatoprotective action was observed in rats pretreated with an alcoholic extract of N. jatamansi dosed at 800 mg/kg for 3 days against thioacetamide-induced liver damage. Rats pretreated with the extract also had reduced levels of serum transaminases (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase) and alkaline phosphatase.

Medicinal value:

5. A 50% ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of N. jatamansi is shown to possess hepatoprotective activity. Pretreatment of rats with the extract (800 mg/kg body wt, orally) for three consecutive days significantly ameliorated the liver damage in rats exposed to the hepatotoxic compound thioacetamide. Elevated levels of serum transaminases (aminotransferases) and alkaline phosphatase, observed in thioacetamide alone treated group of animals, were significantly lowered in N. jatamansi pretreated rats. Pretreatment of the animals with the extract also resulted in an increase in survival in rats intoxicated with LD90 dose of the hepatotoxic drug.

6. Ethanol extract of the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. (Valerianaceae) was studied for its anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity, alone and in rats. The results demonstrated a significant increase in the seizure threshold by Nardostachys jatamansi root extract against maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model as indicated by a decrease in the extension/flexion (E/F) ratio. However, the extract was ineffective against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures.

The study is directed to explore the effect of ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi on the mitochondrial and lysosomal damage induced by doxorubicin in rats. Heart mitochondria were isolated from rats treated with doxorubicin (15 mg/kg, ip) a single dose, exhibited depressed rates of state 3 respiration, low respiratory control ratio (RCR), decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation ratio, Adenosine Triphosphate content and cytochromes (c, c1, b, aa3). In addition the doxorubicin given rats showed significant changes in the lysosomal enzymes (Cathepsin-D, Acid phosphatase, .BETA.-D-glucoronidase, .BETA.-D-galactosidase and .BETA.-N-acetyl glucosaminidase) and membrane bound phosphatases. Also myocardial damage, as assessed by ultrastructural changes showed loss of myofibrils, mitochondrial swelling, and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Pretreatment with Nardostachys jatamansi (500 mg/kg body weight orally) for seven days ameliorated the observed abnormalities and significantly prevented the mitochondrial respiration, lysosomal integrity, membrane bound phosphatases and ultrastructural studies in doxorubicin induced rats. These findings suggest that the cardioprotective efficacy of Nardostachys jatamansi could be mediated possibly through its antioxidant effect as well as by the attenuation of the oxidative stress. clearly demonstrated the synergistic action of both the drugs.

7. Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the commonest neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative stress has been evidenced to play a vital role in its causation. In the study, it was evaluated whether ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi roots (ENj), an antioxidant and enhancer of biogenic amines, can slow the neuronal injury in a 6-OHDA-rat model of Parkinson's. Rats were treated with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of ENj for 3 weeks. On day 21, 2 μl of 6-OHDA (12 μg in 0.01% in ascorbic acid-saline) was infused into the right striatum, while the sham-operated group received 2 μl of vehicle. Three weeks after the 6-OHDA injection, the rats were tested for neurobehavioural activity and were sacrificed after 6 weeks for the estimation of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content, the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, quantification of catecholamines, dopaminergic D2 receptor binding and tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The increase in drug-induced rotations and deficits in locomotor activity and muscular coordination due to 6-OHDA injections were significantly and dose-dependently restored by ENj. Lesioning was followed by an increased lipid peroxidation and significant depletion of reduced glutathione content in the substantia nigra, which was prevented with ENj pretreatment. The activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in striatum, which were reduced significantly by lesioning, were dose-dependently restored by ENj. A significant decrease in the level of dopamine and its metabolites and an increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors in striatum were observed after 6-OHDA injection, and both were significantly recovered following ENj treatment. All of these results were exhibited by an increased density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers in the ipsilateral striatum of the lesioned rats following treatment with ENj; 6-OHDA injection had induced almost a complete loss of TH-IR fibers. This study indicates that the extract of Jatamansi might be helpful in attenuating Parkinsonism.

8. It possess antiarrhythmic activity with possible therapeutical usefulness in cases of auricular flutter; it is less effective than quinidine but has the advantage of being less toxic; oil exerts hypotensive effect and in moderate doses it has a distinct depressant action on the central nervous system; lethal doses cause deep narcosis and death within a few hours; rhizome is considered tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic, deobstruent, emmenagogue, stomachic, and laxative; infusion of rhizome is reported to be useful in epilepsy, hysteria, palpitation of heart and chorea; tincture given in intestinal cholic and flatulence; rhizome used as aromatic adjunct in preparation of medicinal oils; reported to promote growth of hair and impart blackness.

9. It is helpful in suppressing the burning sensation due to cold potency. It helps in maintaining the proper stimulation of nervous system due to its sharp property and sweet taste. It is very helpful in maintaining the digestive tract as it is bitter in taste. It is also helpful in maintaining the circulatory system. Because of bitter taste it is also helpful in expelling out the excess of mucus accumulated in the respiratory tract. It is also helpful in supporting the urine related problems. It is also good aphrodisiac agent

Further REFERENCES:

1. Airi S, Rawal RS, Dhar U, Purohit AN. Assessment of availability and habitat preference of Jatamansi: a critically endangered medicinal plant of west Himalaya. Curr Sci . 2000;79:1467-1471.
2. Hoerster H, Ruecker G, Tautges. Valeranone content in the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana officinalis . Phytochemistry . 1977;16:1070-1071.
3. Bagchi A, Oshima Y, Hikino H. Spirojatomol, a new skeletal sesquiterpenoid of Nardostachys jatamansi roots. Tetrahedron . 1990;46:1523-1530.
4. Chatterjee A, Basak B, Saha M, et al. Structure and stereochemistry of nardostachysin, a new terpenoid ester constituent of the rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi . J Nat Prod . 2000;63:1531-1533.
5. Bagchi A, Oshima Y, Hikino H. Jatamols A and B: sesquiterpenoids of Nardostachys jatamansi roots. Planta Med . 1991;57:282-283.
6. Sastry SD, Maheswari ML, Chakravarti KK, Bhattacharyya SC. Terpenoids CVI: the structure of calarenol. Tetrahedron . 1967;23:1997-2000.
7. Shanbhag SN, Mesta CK, Maheshwari ML, Paknikar SK, Bhattacharyya SC. Terpenoids LII: jatamansin, a new terpenic coumarin from Nardostachys jatamansi . Tetrahedron . 1964;20:2605-2615.
8. Rucker G, Tautges J, Sieck A, Wenzl H, Graf E. Isolation and pharmacodynamic activity of the sesquiterpene valeranone from Nardostachys jatamansi DC [in German]. Arzneimittelforschung . 1978;28:7-13.
9. Metkar B, Pal SC, Kasture V, Kasture S. Antidepressant activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Indian J Nat Prod . 1999;
15:10-13.
10. Prabhu V,
Karanth KS, Rao A. Effects of Nardostachys jatamansi on biogenic amines and inhibitory amino acids in the rat brain. Planta Med . 1994;60:114-117.
11. Salim S, Ahmad M, Zafar KS, Ahmad AS, Islam F. Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi in rat cerebral ischemia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav . 2003;74:481-486.
12. Mishra D, Chaturvedi RV,
Tripathi SC. The fungitoxic effect of the essential oil of the herb Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Trop Agric . 1995;72:48-52.
13. Sarbhoy AK, Varshney JL, Maheshwari ML, Saxena DB. Efficacy of some essential oils and their constituents on few ubiquitous molds. Zentralbl Bakteriol Naturwiss . 1978;133:723-725.
14. Dixit VP, Jain P, Joshi SC. Hypolipidaemic effects of Curcuma longa L and Nardostachys jatamansi , DC in triton-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol . 1988;32:299-304.
15. Ali S, Ansari KA, Jafry MA, Kabeer H, Diwakar G. Nardostachys jatamansi protects against liver damage induced by thioacetamide in rats. J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;71:359-363.

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