List of STUDIES & STUDY Papers on Tinospora cordifolia

Important Study #1

Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis.

Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL, Khiyani RM.

The efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extract in patients of allergic rhinitis was assessed in a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Seventy-five patients were randomly given either TC or placebo for 8 weeks. They were clinically examined and Hb %, TLC, DLC and nasal smear was done. At the end of trial baseline investigations were repeated, drug decoded and results analyzed. With TC treatment 100% relief was reported from sneezing in 83% patients, in 69% from nasal discharge, in 61% from nasal obstruction and in 71% from nasal pruritus. In placebo group, there was no relief in 79% from sneezing, in 84.8% from nasal discharge, in 83% from nasal obstruction, and in 88% from nasal pruritus. The difference between TC and placebo groups was highly significant. TLC increased in 69% patients in drug treated group and in only 11% with placebo. After TC, eosinophil and neutrophil count decreased and goblet cells were absent in nasal smear. After placebo, decrease in eosinophil and neutrophil count was marginal and goblet cells were present. TC significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Nasal smear cytology and leukocyte count correlated with clinical findings. TC was well tolerated.

 

Important Study #2

Restoration of antioxidants by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

Prince PS, Kamalakkannan N, Menon VP.

Department of Biochemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of an alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots on antioxidant defence in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. A significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain along with a decrease in heart was observed in diabetic rats. Decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in heart and brain of diabetic rats were also noted. Alcoholic Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCREt) administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg to diabetic rats orally for six weeks normalized the antioxidant status of heart and brain. The effect of T. cordifolia root extract was more prominent than glibenclamide (600 microg/kg). Insulin (6 units/kg) restored all the parameters to normal status.

Important Study #3

Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic liver and kidney.

Prince PS, Padmanabhan M, Menon VP.

The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of an alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots on antioxidant defence in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. A significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and kidney was observed in diabetic rats. Decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in liver and kidney of diabetic rats were also noted. Alcoholic Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCREt) administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats orally for six weeks normalized the antioxidant status of liver and kidney. The effect of Tinospora cordifolia root extract was more potent than glibenclamide (600 microg/kg body weight). Insulin (6 units/kg) restored all the parameters to normal status. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Important Study #4

Immune stimulating properties of a novel polysaccharide from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia.

Nair PK, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, Alamo A, Melnick SJ, Escalon E, Garcia PI Jr, Wnuk SF, Ramachandran C.

Research Institute, Miami Children's Hospital, 3100 SW 62nd Avenue, Miami, FL 33155, USA.

An alpha-D-glucan (RR1) composed of (1-->4) linked back bone and (1-->6) linked branches with a molecular mass of >550 kDa and exhibiting unique immune stimulating properties is isolated and characterized from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia. This novel polysaccharide is noncytotoxic and nonproliferating to normal lymphocytes as well as tumor cell lines at 0-1000 microg/ml. It activated different subsets of the lymphocytes such as natural killer (NK) cells (331%), T cells (102%), and B cells (39%) at 100 microg/ml concentration. The significant activation of NK cells is associated with the dose-dependent killing of tumor cells by activated normal lymphocytes in a functional assay. Immune activation by RR1 in normal lymphocytes elicited the synthesis of interleukin (IL)-1beta (1080 pg/ml), IL-6 (21,833 pg/ml), IL-12 p70 (50.19 pg/ml), IL-12 p40 (918.23 pg/ml), IL-18 (27.47 pg/ml), IFN- gamma (90.16 pg/ml), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (2225 pg/ml) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (2307 pg/ml) at 100 microg/ml concentration, while it did not induce the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-alpha and TNF-beta. The cytokine profile clearly demonstrates the Th1 pathway of T helper cell differentiation essential for cell mediated immunity, with a self-regulatory mechanism for the control of its overproduction. RR1 also activated the complements in the alternate pathway, demonstrated by a stepwise increase in C3a des Arg components. Incidentally, RR1 stimulation did not produce any oxidative stress or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lymphocytes or any significant increase in nitric oxide production. The water solubility, high molecular mass, activation of lymphocytes especially NK cells, complement activation, Th1 pathway-associated cytokine profile, together with a low level of nitric oxide synthesis and absence of oxidative stress confer important immunoprotective potential to this novel alpha-D-glucan.

References:

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List of Further References & Study Papers.

1.Alteration in the Radiosensitivity of HeLa Cells by Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia).Rao SK, Rao PS.

Integr Cancer Ther. 2010 Dec;9(4):378-84.PMID:
2.Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity.

Sharma V, Pandey D.

Toxicol Int. 2010 Jan;17(1):12-7.PMID: 21042467
3.Beneficial Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Blood Profiles in Male Mice Exposed to Lead.

Sharma V, Pandey D.

Toxicol Int. 2010 Jan;17(1):8-11.PMID: 21042466
4.Purification and characterization of a thiol amylase over produced by a non-cereal non-leguminous plant, Tinospora cordifolia.Mukherjee A, Ghosh AK, Sengupta S.

Carbohydr Res. 2010 Dec 10;345(18):2731-5. Epub 2010 Oct 8.PMID: 21040904
5.A Randomized Controlled Exploratory Evaluation of Standardized Ayurvedic Formulations in Symptomatic Osteoarthritis Knees: A Government of India NMITLI Project.

Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Sarmukaddam S, Raut AK, Bichile L, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Patwardhan B.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:724291. Epub 2010 Oct 11.PMID: 20981160
6.Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates urotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide by modulating GSH and cytokine levels.
Hamsa TP, Kuttan G.

Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20932729
7.Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) - validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies.

Upadhyay AK, Kumar K, Kumar A, Mishra HS.

Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Apr;1(2):112-21.PMID: 20814526
8.A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats.

Savrikar SS, Dole V, Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ.

Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Apr;1(2):67-72.PMID: 20814518
9.Water soluble fraction of Tinospora cordifolia leaves enhanced the non-specific immune mechanisms and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

Alexander CP, Kirubakaran CJ, Michael RD.

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010 Nov;29(5):765-72. Epub 2010 Jul 17.PMID: 20624469
10.Use of Tinospora cordifolia in HIV infection.

Akhtar S.

Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Feb;42(1):57.  . PMID: 20606842
11.Beta-ecdysone has bone protective but no estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats.

Seidlova-Wuttke D, Christel D, Kapur P, Nguyen BT, Jarry H, Wuttke W.

Phytomedicine. 2010 Sep;17(11):884-9.PMID: 20554186
12.New phytoconstituents from the stem bark of Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

Ahmad F, Ali M, Alam P.

Nat Prod Res. 2010 Jun;24(10):926-34.PMID: 20496230
13.Beneficial effects of beta-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats.

Kapur P, Wuttke W, Jarry H, Seidlova-Wuttke D.

Phytomedicine. 2010 Apr;17(5):350-5.PMID: 20171072
14.Aporphine alkaloids, clerodane diterpenes, and other constituents from Tinospora cordifolia.

Phan VK, Chau VM, Nguyen TD, La VK, Dan TH, Nguyen HN, Nguyen XC, Hoang TH, Trinh VL.

Fitoterapia. 2010 Sep;81(6):485-9. Epub 2010 Jan 15.PMID: 20080155
15.A validated HPLC method for estimation of cordifolioside A in Tinospora cordifolia, Miers and marketed formulations.

Alam P, Ali M, Singh R; Madhurima, Ahmad S, Shakeel F.

J Chromatogr Sci. 2009 Nov-Dec;47(10):910-3.PMID: 19930804
16.Evaluation of mammary gland immunity and therapeutic potential of Tinospora cordifolia against bovine subclinical mastitis.

Mukherjee R, De UK, Ram GC.

Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010 Apr;42(4):645-51. Epub 2009 Oct 30.PMID: 19876755
17.Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Ramesh B, Baskar R, Saralakumari D.

Horm Metab Res. 2009 Oct;41(10):741-6.PMID: 19764107
18.Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Patel SS, Shah RS, Goyal RK.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Jul;47(7):564-70.PMID: 19761040
19.Tinospora cordifolia, a safety evaluation.

Chandrasekaran CV, Mathuram LN, Daivasigamani P, Bhatnagar U.

Toxicol In Vitro. 2009 Oct;23(7):1220-6. Epub 2009 Aug 3.PMID: 19651204
20.Immunological response to (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan in the lung and spleen of endotoxin-stimulated juvenile rats.

Velazquez EA, Kimura D, Torbati D, Ramachandran C, Totapally BR.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Nov;105(5):301-6. Epub 2009 Jul 13.PMID: 19627280
21.Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

Gowrishankar R, Kumar M, Menon V, Divi SM, Saravanan M, Magudapathy P, Panigrahi BK, Nair KG, Venkataramaniah K.

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Mar;133(3):357-63. Epub 2009 Jul 9.PMID: 19588079
22.Alpha glucosidase inhibition by stem extract of Tinospora cordifolia.

Chougale AD, Ghadyale VA, Panaskar SN, Arvindekar AU.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009 Aug;24(4):998-1001.PMID: 19555164
23.Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.

Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Karuna R, Saralakumari D.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Sep;47(9):2224-9. Epub 2009 Jun 9.PMID: 19520137
24.Molecular events in the activation of B cells and macrophages by a non-microbial TLR4 agonist, G1-4A from Tinospora cordifolia.

Raghu R, Sharma D, Ramakrishnan R, Khanam S, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB.

Immunol Lett. 2009 Mar 24;123(1):60-71. Epub 2009 Feb 20.PMID: 19428553
25.Physiological Effects of a Novel Immune Stimulator Drug, (1,4)-alpha-d-Glucan, in Rats.

Koppada R, Norozian FM, Torbati D, Kalomiris S, Ramachandran C, Totapally BR.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 19389049
26.Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from Melghat forest in India.

Tambekar DH, Khante BS, Chandak BR, Titare AS, Boralkar SS, Aghadte SN.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009 May 7;6(3):228-32.PMID: 20448847
27.Androgenic action of Tinospora cordifolia ethanolic extract in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

Kapur P, Pereira BM, Wuttke W, Jarry H.

Phytomedicine. 2009 Jun;16(6-7):679-82. Epub 2008 Dec 20.PMID: 19097771
28.Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized as alpha-glucosidase inhibitor present in Tinospora cordifolia.

Sengupta S, Mukherjee A, Goswami R, Basu S.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009 Jun;24(3):684-90.PMID: 18951283
29.Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Dhanasekaran M, Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Agastian P, Duraipandiyan V.

Invest New Drugs. 2009 Aug;27(4):347-55. Epub 2008 Oct 14.PMID: 18853103
30. Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants collected from environmentally different sites.

Barthwal J, Nair S, Kakkar P.

Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 Aug;21(4):319-24.PMID: 18837296
31.Preliminary investigation of the radiosensitizing activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in tumor-bearing mice.

Rao SK, Rao PS, Rao BN.

Phytother Res. 2008 Nov;22(11):1482-9.PMID: 18803246
32.Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: a novel integrative approach.

Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Vakharia BC.

World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Aug 14;14(30):4753-62.PMID: 18720535
33.Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice.

Chaudhary R, Jahan S, Goyal PK.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2008;27(3):233-43.PMID: 18652570
34.Octacosanol isolated from Tinospora cordifolia downregulates VEGF gene expression by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-<kappa>B and its DNA binding activity.

Thippeswamy G, Sheela ML, Salimath BP.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 7;588(2-3):141-50. Epub 2008 Apr 15.PMID: 18513715
35.Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients.

Kalikar MV, Thawani VR, Varadpande UK, Sontakke SD, Singh RP, Khiyani RK.

Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;40(3):107-10.PMID: 20040936
36.Evaluation of the antiosteoporotic potential of Tinospora cordifolia in female rats.

Kapur P, Jarry H, Wuttke W, Pereira BM, Seidlova-Wuttke D.

Maturitas. 2008 Apr 20;59(4):329-38. Epub 2008 May 15.PMID: 18482809
37.Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes.

Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Paul A Devasagayam T.

J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 May;40(3):163-73.PMID: 18398493
38.Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study.

Panchabhai TS, Ambarkhane SV, Joshi AS, Samant BD, Rege NN.

Phytother Res. 2008 May;22(5):646-50. Erratum in: Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1274. PMID: 18389486
39.The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.

Cingi C, Conk-Dalay M, Cakli H, Bal C.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Oct;265(10):1219-23. Epub 2008 Mar 15.PMID: 18343939
40.RAPD Analysis for Determination of Components in Herbal Medicine.

Shinde VM, Dhalwal K, Mahadik KR, Joshi KS, Patwardhan BK.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Sep;4(Suppl 1):21-3.PMID: 18227927
41. Herbal medicines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis: a systematic review.

Guo R, Pittler MH, Ernst E.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007 Dec;99(6):483-95. Review.PMID: 18219828
42.Validation of therapeutic claims of Tinospora cordifolia: a review.

Panchabhai TS, Kulkarni UP, Rege NN.

Phytother Res. 2008 Apr;22(4):425-41. Review.PMID: 18167043
43. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis.

Srinivasan GV, Unnikrishnan KP, Rema Shree AB, Balachandran I.

Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 Jan;70(1):96-9.PMID: 20390090
44.Anti-tumor activity of four Ayurvedic herbs in Dalton lymphoma ascites bearing mice and their short-term in vitro cytotoxicity on DLA-cell-line.

Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jun 18;5(4):409-18.PMID:
45.Effect of Fagonia Arabica (Dhamasa) on in vitro thrombolysis.

Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Nov 6;7:36.PMID: 17986325
46.G1-4A, an immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, modulates macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock.

Desai VR, Ramkrishnan R, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Oct;7(10):1375-86. Epub 2007 Jun 29.PMID: 17673153
47.Antihyperglycaemic effect of 'Ilogen-Excel', an ayurvedic herbal formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

Umamaheswari S, Mainzen Prince PS.

Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 Jan-Feb;64(1):53-61.PMID: 17665851
48.Effects of four Indian medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin- and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury and immunosuppression in guinea pigs.

Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH.

World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jun 21;13(23):3199-205.PMID: 17589898
49.Immunomodulatory role of Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled study.

Purandare H, Supe A.

Indian J Med Sci. 2007 Jun;61(6):347-55.PMID: 17558098
50.Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on gamma ray-induced perturbations in macrophages and splenocytes.

Singh L, Tyagi S, Rizvi MA, Goel HC.

J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2007 Jul;48(4):305-15. Epub 2007 Jun 5.PMID:
51.Mechanism of macrophage activation by (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan isolated from Tinospora cordifolia.

Nair PK, Melnick SJ, Ramachandran R, Escalon E, Ramachandran C.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Dec 5;6(12):1815-24. Epub 2006 Aug 28.PMID: 17052672
52.Immunostimulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia Miers leaf extract in Oreochromis mossambicus.

Sudhakaran DS, Srirekha P, Devasree LD, Premsingh S, Michael RD.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Sep;44(9):726-32.PMID: 16999027
53.Quantitative determination of four constituents of Tinospora sps. by a reversed-phase HPLC-UV-DAD method. Broad-based studies revealing variation in content of four secondary metabolites in the plant from different eco-geographical regions of India.

Ahmed SM, Manhas LR, Verma V, Khajuria RK.

J Chromatogr Sci. 2006 Sep;44(8):504-9.PMID: 16959127
54.Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

Vinutha B, Prashanth D, Salma K, Sreeja SL, Pratiti D, Padmaja R, Radhika S, Amit A, Venkateshwarlu K, Deepak M.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan 19;109(2):359-63. Epub 2006 Aug 4.PMID: 16950584
55.Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.

Spelman K, Burns J, Nichols D, Winters N, Ottersberg S, Tenborg M.

Altern Med Rev. 2006 Jun;11(2):128-50. Review.PMID: 16813462
56. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on Cultured HeLa Cells.

Jagetia GC, Rao SK.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):267-72. Epub 2006 Apr 24.PMID: 16786058
57.

Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.

Citarasu T, Sivaram V, Immanuel G, Rout N, Murugan V.

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006 Oct;21(4):372-84. Epub 2006 May 12.PMID: 16698283
58.Identification of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook F & Thomas using RAPD markers.

Rout GR.

Z Naturforsch C. 2006 Jan-Feb;61(1-2):118-22.PMID: 16610228
59.

Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice.

Jagetia GC, Rao SK.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Mar;29(3):460-6.PMID: 16508146
60.

Restoration of thymic homeostasis in a tumor-bearing host by in vivo administration of medicinal herb Tinospora cordifolia.

Singh N, Singh SM, Prakash, Singh G.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(4):585-99.PMID: 16435578 - indexed for MEDLINE
antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice.

Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PV, Raveesha KA, Rao AR.

Phytomedicine. 2006 Jan;13(1-2):74-84. Epub 2005 Jun 29.PMID: 16360936
62.

Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Rao PR, Kumar VK, Viswanath RK, Subbaraju GV.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Dec;28(12):2319-22.PMID: 16327173
63.

Effect of alcoholic extract of Ayurvedic herb Tinospora cordifolia on the proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in a tumor-bearing host.

Singh SM, Singh N, Shrivastava P.

Fitoterapia. 2006 Jan;77(1):1-11. Epub 2005 Dec 2.PMID: 16326030
64.

Enhanced production of the polysaccharide arabinogalactan using immobilized cultures of Tinospora cordifolia by elicitation and in situ adsorption.

Roja G, Bhangale AS, Juvekar AR, Eapen S, D'Souza SF.

Biotechnol Prog. 2005 Nov-Dec;21(6):1688-91.PMID: 16321052
65.

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India.

Samy RP.

Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec;76(7-8):697-9. Epub 2005 Oct 17.PMID: 16229969
66.

Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly--case reports.

Singh RK.

J Vector Borne Dis. 2005 Mar;42(1):36-8.PMID: 15999460
67.

Anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity of pepticare, a herbomineral formulation.

Bafna PA, Balaraman R.

Phytomedicine. 2005 Apr;12(4):264-70.PMID: 15898703
68.

Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the antitumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells.

Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(1):1-14.PMID: 15803856
69.

Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis.

Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL, Khiyani RM.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;96(3):445-9. Epub 2004 Nov 23.PMID: 15619563
70.

Restoration of antioxidants by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

Prince PS, Kamalakkannan N, Menon VP.

Acta Pol Pharm. 2004 Jul-Aug;61(4):283-7.PMID: 15575595
71.

[A herbalogical study on traditional Mongolian medicine "lideri"]

Bao Y, Zhao B, Bu R.

Zhong Yao Cai. 2001 Nov;24(11):823-5. Chinese. PMID: 15575169
72.

Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Babu PS, Stanely Mainzen Prince P.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Nov;56(11):1435-42.PMID: 15525451
73.

Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic liver and kidney.

Prince PS, Padmanabhan M, Menon VP.

Phytother Res. 2004 Sep;18(9):785-7.PMID: 15478189
74.

Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices.

Rawal A, Muddeshwar M, Biswas S.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Nov 12;324(2):588-96.PMID: 15474468
75.

Immune stimulating properties of a novel polysaccharide from the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia.

Nair PK, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, Alamo A, Melnick SJ, Escalon E, Garcia PI Jr, Wnuk SF, Ramachandran C.

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J Med Food. 2004 Fall;7(3):343-8.PMID: 15383230
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BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004 Aug 13;4:11.PMID: 15310392
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Phytochemistry. 2004 Jul;65(14):2051-5.PMID: 15279971
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Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Agrawala PK, Bala M, Sinha AK, Dogra R.

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J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):233-7.PMID: 15013186
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Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal phytomedicine.

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J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan;90(1):49-55.PMID: 14698508
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Mary NK, Babu BH, Padikkala J.

Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):474-82.PMID: 13678230
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Phytother Res. 2003 May;17(5):552-4.PMID: 12748997
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Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):410-3.PMID: 12722152
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Protective effect of a polyherbal formulation (Immu-21) against cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice.

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Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):306-10.PMID: 12722129
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Cell proliferation and natural killer cell activity by polyherbal formulation, Immu-21 in mice.

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Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):282-7.PMID: 12635697
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Amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats following oral administration of plant (Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens and Tinospora cordifolia) extracts.

Grover JK, Rathi SS, Vats V.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Mar;40(3):273-6.PMID: 12635695
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Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Rana SV.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 Jun;40(6):727-34.PMID: 12587720
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Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):105-8.PMID: 12499084
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Prevention of experimental diabetic cataract by Indian Ayurvedic plant extracts.

Rathi SS, Grover JK, Vikrant V, Biswas NR.

Phytother Res. 2002 Dec;16(8):774-7.PMID: 12458487
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Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats.

Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M.

J Toxicol Sci. 2002 Aug;27(3):139-46.PMID: 12238138
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Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia polysaccharide against iron-mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray induced protein damage.

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Redox Rep. 2002;7(3):137-43.PMID: 12189043
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An experimental study of some indigenous drugs with special reference to hydraulic permeability.

Upadhyay L, Mehrotra A, Srivastava AK, Rai NP, Tripathi K.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Dec;39(12):1308-10.PMID: 12018531
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J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Aug;76(3):233-8.PMID: 11448544
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Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP.

Phytother Res. 2001 May;15(3):213-8.PMID: 11351355
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Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana and Tinospora cordifolia in experimental diabetes and their effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

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J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Dec;73(3):461-70.PMID: 11091000
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Comparative studies of the immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis.

Manjrekar PN, Jolly CI, Narayanan S.

Fitoterapia. 2000 Jun;71(3):254-7.PMID: 10844163
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Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Stanely P, Prince M, Menon VP.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Apr;70(1):9-15.PMID: 10720784
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Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R, Sainis K.

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Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91. Review.PMID: 10404532
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Prince PS, Menon VP.

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J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Jan;64(1):53-7.PMID: 10075122
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Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in cultured HeLa cells.

Jagetia GC, Nayak V, Vidyasagar MS.

Cancer Lett. 1998 May 15;127(1-2):71-82.PMID: 9619860
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Mathew S, Kuttan G.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1997 Dec;16(4):407-11.PMID: 9505214
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J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Oct;58(2):89-95.PMID: 9406896
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Dhuley JN.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Sep;58(1):15-20.PMID: 9324000
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Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS, Chakrabarti A.

Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Mar;35(3):297-9.PMID: 9332177
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Sohni YR, Bhatt RM.

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Sarma DN, Khosa RL, Sahai M.

Planta Med. 1995 Feb;61(1):98-9.  . PMID: 7701011
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The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

Sohni YR, Kaimal P, Bhatt RM.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Jan;45(1):43-52.PMID: 7739226
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Tinospora cordifolia induces colony stimulating activity in serum.

Thatte UM, Rao SG, Dahanukar SA.

J Postgrad Med. 1994 Oct-Dec;40(4):202-3.PMID: 9136239
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Gangan VD, Pradhan P, Sipahimalani AT, Banerji A.

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Nagarkatti DS, Rege NN, Desai NK, Dahanukar SA.

J Postgrad Med. 1994 Apr-Jun;40(2):65-7.PMID: 8737554
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Immunotherapy with Tinospora cordifolia: a new lead in the management of obstructive jaundice.

Rege N, Bapat RD, Koti R, Desai NK, Dahanukar S.

Indian J Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan;12(1):5-8.PMID: 8330924
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Rege NN, Dahanukar SA.

J Postgrad Med. 1993 Jan-Mar;39(1):22-5.PMID: 8295140
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Wadood N, Wadood A, Shah SA.

Planta Med. 1992 Apr;58(2):131-6.PMID: 1529024
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Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by tinospora cordifolia.

Mathur SK.

J Postgrad Med. 1992 Apr-Jun;38(2):102.  . PMID: 1294124
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Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli peritonitis and bacteremia by Tinospora cordifolia.

Thatte UM, Kulkarni MR, Dahanukar SA.

J Postgrad Med. 1992 Jan-Mar;38(1):13-5.PMID: 1512717
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Rege NN, Nazareth HM, Bapat RD, Dahanukar SA.

Indian J Med Res. 1989 Dec;90:478-83.PMID: 2697692
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Structure of columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone from Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

Swaminathan K, Sinha UC, Ramakumar S, Bhatt RK, Sabata BK.

Acta Crystallogr C. 1989 Feb 15;45 ( Pt 2):300-3.PMID: 2610972
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Structure of tinosporide, a diterpenoid furanolactone from Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

Swaminathan K, Sinha UC, Bhatt RK, Sabata BK, Tavale SS.

Acta Crystallogr C. 1989 Jan 15;45 ( Pt 1):134-6.PMID: 2610955
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A comparative study of diuretic effects of Tinospora cordifolia and hydrochlorothiazide in rats and a preliminary phase I study in human volunteers.

Nayampalli SS, Ainapure SS, Samant BD, Kudtarkar RG, Desai NK, Gupta KC.

J Postgrad Med. 1988 Oct;34(4):233-6.  . PMID: 3254990
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Comparative study of immunomodulating activity of Indian medicinal plants, lithium carbonate and glucan.

Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Oct;10(10):639-44.PMID: 3236938
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Immunotherapeutic modification by Tinospora cordifolia of abdominal sepsis induced by caecal ligation in rats.

Dahanukar SA, Thatte UM, Pai N, More PB, Karandikar SM.

Indian J Gastroenterol. 1988 Jan;7(1):21-3.  . PMID: 3338823
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Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.

Ikram M, Khattak SG, Gilani SN.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1987 Mar-Apr;19(2):185-92.PMID: 3497307
134.

Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. I: Preliminary screening.

Atal CK, Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1986 Nov;18(2):133-41.PMID: 3560991

Additional list of further readings

1. Wealth of India: A dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. 1st ed. Vol X. New Delhi: CSIR; 2003. Anonymous; pp. 251–2.

2. Aima RK. "Pictorial Guide to Plants". 1st ed. Dehradun: Natraj Publishers; 2003. pp. 454–5.

3. Vaidya DB. "Materia Medica of Tibetan Medicine". Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications; 1994. p. 163.

4. Bhandari C. Vanaushadhi Chandrodaya. 1st ed. Vol. 3. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2006. p. 86.

5. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part I. 1st ed. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Department Of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and FW; 2001. pp. 53–5.

6. Indian medicinal plants. 1st ed. Vol. V. Kottakkal: Arya Vaidya sala; 1994. Anonymous; p. 283.

7. Chopra RN. Chopra's Indigenous Drugs of India. Calcutta: B.K. Dhur of Academic Publishers; 1994. p. 427.

8. Sharma PV. Dravyaguna Vigyan (Vegetable Drugs) 1st ed. Vol. II. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2003. pp. 761–3.

9. Chunekar KC, Pandey GS. "Guduchyadi Varga. Bhavprakash Nidhantu". Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2006. p. 269.

10. Tripathi RD. Astanga Samgraha (Sutrasthana) Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratisthan; 2006. pp. 142–315.

11. Tripathi B. Charak Samhita Part I . Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan; 2003. p. 454.

12. Tripathi I. "Raj Nighantu". Varanasi: Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2003. p. 31.

13. Tripathi I. "Arkaprakash. Tritiya Shatak". Varanasi: Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy; 2006. p. 45.

14. Bhatta KR, Bhatta RK, Swami LR. Siddha Bhaisajya Mani Mala: Vaishwanara Hindi commentary. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Krishnadas Academy; 3. p. 31.

15. "Shodhal Nighantu", Editor. Baroda: University Publications Sales Unit; 1978. Anonymous; p. 101.

16. Pandit RP. "Madanpal Nighantu". Mumbai: Khemraj Srikrishnadas Prakashan; 1998. p. 8.

17. Sharma PV, Sharma GP. "Kaiyadeva Nighantu". Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2006. p. 5.

18. Kamat SD. "Dhanvantari Nighantu". Delhi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Pratisthan; 2002. p. 1.

19. Harishankar SL. Shaligram Vaishya krit Shaligram Nighantu. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Khemraj Shri Krishna Das Prakashan; 1912. pp. 251–3.

20. Sharma AR. Sushrut Samhita: Sushrutvimarshini Hindi Commentary along with special Deliberation etc. Part I. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan; 2000. p. 419.

21. Sharma AR. Sushrut Samhita: Sushrutvimarshini Hindi Commentary along with special Deliberation etc. Part II. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Surbharati Prakashan; 2001. pp. 311–317.

22. Singh J, Sinha K, Sharma A, Mishra NP, Khanuja SP. Traditional uses of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) J Med Aromat Plant Sci. 2003;25:748–51.

23. Jain SK. Dictionary of Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany. New Delhi: Deep Publishers; 1991. pp. 179–80.

24. Lalramnghinglova H. 2003. Ethno-Medicinal Plants of Mizoram Dehradun; Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; p. 283.

25. Singh V, Pandey RP. Ethnobotany of Rajasthan India. Jodhpur: Scientifi c publisher (India); 1998. pp. 203–231.

26. Sood SK, Parmar S, Lakhanpal TN. Ethnic plants of India used in cancer cure. Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; 2005. p. 235.

27. Khosa RL, Prasad S. Pharmacognostical studies on Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers) J Res Ind Med. 1971;6:261–9.

28. Maurya R, Manhas LR, Gupta P, Mishra PK, Singh G, Yadav PP. Amritosides A, B, C and D: Clerodane furano diterpene glucosides from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:2051–5. 

29. Jahfar M, Azadi P. Glycosyl composition of polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia. II: Glycosyl linkages. Acta Pharm. 2004;54:73–8. 

30. Jahfar M. Glycosyl composition of polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia. Acta Pharm. 2003;53:65–9. 

31. Chintalwar GJ, Gupta S, Roja G, Bapat VA. Protoberberine alkaloids from callus and cell suspension cultures of Tinospora cordifolia. Pharmaceut Biol. 2003;42:81–6.

32. Nair PK, Melnick SJ, Ramachandran R, Escalon E, Ramachandran C. Mechanism of macrophage activation by (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan isolated from Tinospora cordifolia. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:1815–24. 

33. Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R, et al. An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry. 1999;52:1089–93. 

34. Singh SS, Pandey SC, Srivastava S, Gupta VS, Patro B, Ghosh AC. Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora Cordifolia (Guduchi) Indian J Pharmacol. 2003;35:83–91.

35. Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants. 1st ed. Vol. I. New Delhi: ICMR; 2003. Anonymous; pp. 212–8.

36. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Mumbai: Indian Drug Manufacturer's Association; 2002. Anonymous; pp. 449–58.

37. Vaidya A. Reverse pharmacological correlates of Ayurvedic drug actions. Indian J Pharmacol. 2006;38:311–5.

38. Sinha K, Mishra NP, Singh J, Khanuja SP. Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi): A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: A review. Indian J Trad Know. 2004;3:257–70.

39. Bairy KL, Rao Y, Kumar KB. Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in healthy volunteers: A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. Iranian J Pharmacol Therap. 2004;3:57–60.

40. Agarwal A, Malini S, Bairy KL, Rao MS. Effect of Tinospora Cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2002;34:339–49.

41. Patil M, Patki P, Kamath HV, Patwardhan B. Anti-stress activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers. Indian Drugs. 1997;34:211–5.

42. Sen P, Maiti PC, Puri S, Ray A, Audulov NA, Valdman AV. Mechanism of anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn, eugenol and Tinospora malabarica in experimental animals. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30:592–6. 

43. DerMarderosian, Beutler A, John A, editors. The review of natural products: The most complete source of natural product information. 4th ed. Pennsylvania (USA): Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005.

44. Wesley JJ, Christina AJ, Chidambaranathan N. Effect of alcoholic extract of Tinospora Cordifolia on acute and subacute Inflammation. Pharmacologyonline. 2008;3:683–7.

45. Pendse VK, Dadhich AP, Mathur PN, Bal MS, Madam BR. Anti-Inflammatory, immunosuppressive and some related pharmacological actions of the water extract of Neem Giloe (Tinospora cordifolia): A Preliminary Report. Indian J Pharmacol. 1977;9:221–4.

46. Jana U, Chattopadhyay RN, Shw BP. Preliminary studies on anti-inflammatory activity of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Vitex negundo Linn. and Tinospora cordifolia (Willid) Miers in albino rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 1999;31:232–3.

47. Gulati OD, Pandey DC. Anti-inflammatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia. Rheumatism. 1982;17:76–83.

48. Gulati OD. Clinical trial of Tinospora cordifolia in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatism. 1980;15:143–8.

49. Spelman K. Traditional and clinical uses of Tinospora cordifolia, guduchi. Aust J Med Herbalism. 2001;13:49–57.

50. Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL, et al. Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96:445–9. 

51. Nayampalli SS, Desai NK, Ainapure SS. Anti-allergic properties of Tinospora cordifolia in animal models. Indian J Pharmacol. 1986;18:250–2.

52. Nayampalli S, Ainapure SS, Nadkarni PM. Study of antiallergic acid Bronchodilator effects of Tinospora cordifolia. Indian J Pharmacol. 1982;14:64–6.

53. Prince PS, Kamalakkannan N, Menon VP. Restoration of antioxidants by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Acta Pol Pharm. 2004;61:283–7. 

54. Prince PS, Padmanabhan M, Menon VP. Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan-induced diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother Res. 2004;18:785–7. 

55. Rawal AK, Muddeshwar MG, Biswas SK. Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn and Tinospora cordifolia exert neuroprotection by modulating the antioxidant system in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004;13(4):11.

56. Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Rana SV. Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia: A possible role in radioprotection. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40:727–34. 

57. Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S. Antioxidant properties of a Tinospora cordifolia polysaccharide against iron-mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray induced protein damage. Redox Rep. 2002;7:137–43. 

58. Mathew S, Kuttan G. Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia and its usefulness in the amelioration of cyclophosphamide induced toxicity. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1997;16:407–11. 

59. Pahadiya S, Sharma J. Alteration of lethal effects of gamma rays in Swiss albino mice by Tinospora cordifolia. Phytother Res. 2003;17:552–4. 

60. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PV, Raveesha KA, Rao AR. Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:74–84. 

61. Rawal A, Muddeshwar M, Biswas S. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:588–96. 

62. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: A preliminary study. J Med Food. 2004;7:343–8. 

63. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP. Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytother Res. 2001;15:213–8. 

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65. Jagetia GC, Rao SK. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:460–6. 

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