Giloy/ Guduchi/ Amrita

Binomial Name: Tinospora cordifolia

Chemical Constituents of Tinospora cordifolia

Type of chemical

Active principles

Part in which present

Alkaloids (Tikta-Bitter Principle)

Berberine, Palmatine,

Stem

 

Tembetarine, Magnofl orine,

Root

 

Choline, Tinosporin, Isocolumbin, Palmatine, Tetrahydropalmatine, Magnofl orine

 

Glycosides

18-norclerodane glucoside, Furanoid diterpene glucoside, Tinocordiside,

Stem

 

Tinocordifolioside,

 

 

Cordioside, Cordifolioside A, Cordifolioside B,

 

 

Syringin, Syringin-apiosylglycoside,

 

 

Palmatosides C, Palmatosides F,

 

 

Cordifoliside A, Cordiofoliside B,

 

 

Cordifoliside C, Cordifoliside D, Cordifoliside E

 

Diterpenoid lactones

Furanolactone,

Whole plant

 

Clerodane derivatives and

 

 

[(5R,10R)-4R-8R-dihydroxy-2S-3R:15,16-

 

 

diepoxy-cleroda-13 (16), 14-dieno-17,12S:

 

 

18,1S-dilactone] and Tinosporon,

 

 

Tinosporides, and,

 

 

Jateorine, Columbin

 

Steroids

β -sitosterol, δ-sitosterol, 20 β-

Aerial part

 

Hydroxy ecdysone.

Stem

 

Ecdysterone, Makisterone A,

 

 

Giloinsterol.

 

Sesquiterpenoid

Tinocordifolin.

Stem

Aliphatic compound

Octacosanol, Heptacosanol,

Whole plant

Miscellaneous

Nonacosan-15-one

Whole plant

 

3,(α,4-di hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-4-(4-

Root

 

Compounds hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-tetrahydrofuran.

Whole plant

 

Jatrorrhizine.

 

 

Tinosporidine, Cordifol, Cordifelone,

 

 

N-trans-feruloyl tyramine as diacetate,

 

 

Giloin, Giloinin, Tinosporic acid.

 

As per Auyrveda

Karma (action - pharmacodynamics) and prayoga (uses) of T. cordifolia
Karma (Action - Pharmacodynamics) Prayoga (Uses- Indication) Classical references
Rasayana, Sangrahi, Balya, Agnidipana, Tridoshshamaka Daha, Meha, Kasa, Pandu, Kamla, Kushta, Vatarakta, Jwara, Krimi, Prameha, Swas, Arsha, Kricch, Hridroga Bhav Prakash Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga;
Vata-Pitta-Kaphanashak, Trishnanashaka, Agnideepaka Jwara, Chardi, Daha Astang Sangrah Sutrasthan 7-149, 16-10
Sangrahi, Vatahara, Agnideepana, Shlesm-Shonit- Prashamana Vivandha Charak samhita Sutrastan 25-40
Tridoshnashaka, Vishaghni, Jwara-bhootaghni Jwara, Daha, Trishna, Vatarakta, Prameha, Pandu, Bhrama, Balipalita Raj Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga 17,18
Dipana, Grahi Kasa, Pandu, Jwara Ark Prakash      Tritiya Shatak
Balya, Tridoshnashaka Laghujwara, Meha, Daha, Kasa, Pandu, Vitsarana (Atisara) Siddh Bhesajya Mani Mala Dwitiya gucch 70
Tridoshghni, Grahi, Rasayana, Dipana Jwara, Daha, Kamla, Vatarakta Shodhal Nighantu Guna Sangrah, Guduchyadi Varga-120
Sangrahi, Balya, Agnideepana Kamla, Kushta, Vatarakta, Jwara, Pitta, Vivandha, Krimi Madan Pal Nighantu Harityakadi Varga-39,40,41
Sangrahi, Vrishya, Balya, Rasayana, Dipana, Chakshusya, Vayah-Sthapana, Medhya, Tridoshanashaka Kushta, Krimi, Chardi, Daha, Vatarakta, Pandu, Jwara, Kamla, Meha, Trishna, Kasa Kaidev Nighantu Aushadhi Varga-9,10,11
Tridoshanashaka, Aayushyaprada, Medhya, Sangrahi Jantu, Raktarsha, Raktavata, Kandu, Visarpa, Kushta, Visha, Bhoota, Valipalita, Chardi, Meha, Jwara, Dhanvantari Nighantu Guduchyadi- 5,6,7,8
Grahi, Balya, Rasayana, Dipana, Hriddhya, Aayushyaprada, Chakshusya, Tridoshaghna Jwara, Chardi, Kamla, Daha, Trisha, Bhrama, Pandu, Prameha, Kasa, Kushta, Krimi, Vatarakta, Kandu, Meda, Visarpa, Aruchi, Hikka, Arsha, Mutrakriccha, Pradara, Somroga Shaligram Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga-251,252,253
Pitta-Kaphapaha Vataja Granthi, Vataja Galganda Sushrut Samhita, Sutra 46:270, Chiki. 18: 5, 46

PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION
A large number of chemicals have been isolated from T. cordifolia, belonging to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Leaves of this plant are rich in protein (11.2%), calcium and phosphorus. Four new clerodane furano diterpene glucosides (amritosides A, B, C and D) have been isolated as their acetates from stems. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The glycosyl component of a polysaccharide from T. cordifolia has been isolated, purified, methylated, hydrolyzed, reduced and acetylated. The partially methylated alditol acetate (PMAA) derivative thus obtained have been subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) studies. The following types of linkages were reported: terminal-glucose, 4-xylose, 4-glucose, 4, 6-glucose and 2, 3, 4, 6-glucose. Callus and cell suspension cultures have been established from the stem explants of the plant. Accumulation of berberine and jatrorrhizine (protoberberine alkaloids) was observed in both callus and cell suspension cultures. The signaling mechanism of the novel (1, 4)-alpha-D-glucan (RR1) isolated from T. cordifolia was investigated in macrophages to evaluate its immunostimulating properties. An arabinogalactan has been isolated from the dried stems and examined by methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified polysaccharide showed polyclonal mitogenic activity against B-cells; their proliferation did not require macrophages. Detailed chemical constitution of T. cordifolia is given in Phytochemical characterization includes a test for one of the phytochemical components, namely, tinosporaside (limits, 0.03% to 0.04%)

REVERSE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL CORRELATES
Indian contributions to the therapeutic revolution through reverse pharmacology will have to eventually integrate state-of-the-art high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry and effects of the old or novel compounds/ plants on human gene expression and proteomics.
Much work has been done on T. cordifolia to validate its effects and this section describes some of these studies.
T. cordifolia has been used in Ayurvedic preparations for the treatment of various ailments throughout the centuries. It is used as a rasayana to improve the immune system and body resistance against infections. The whole plant is used medicinally; however, the stem is approved for use in medicine as listed by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. This is due to higher alkaloid content in the stems than in the leaves. It is a traditional belief that Guduchi satva obtained from the Guduchi plant growing on neem tree (Azadirachta indica) is more bitter and more efficacious and is said to incorporate the medicinal values of neem.

EFFECTS ON STRESS, LEARNING AND MEMORY

T. cordifolia is known as a medhya rasayana (learning and memory enhancer) in Ayurveda. It is also described to be useful for treatment of bhrama (Vertigo) in various Ayurvedic texts. Significant response has been found in children with moderate degree of behavior disorders and mental deficit, along with improvement in IQ levels.
The root of T. cordifolia is known to be used traditionally for its anti-stress activity. In a 21-day randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study, the pure aqueous extract of the root was found to enhance verbal learning and logical memory. T. cordifolia has also been shown to enhance cognition (learning and memory) in normal rats and reverse cyclosporine-induced memory deficit. Both the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia produced a decrease in learning scores in Hebb William maze and retention memory, indicating enhancement of learning and memory. The histopathological examination of hippocampus in cyclosporine-treated rats showed neurodegenerative changes, which were protected by T. cordifolia. Various extracts of the T. cordifolia exhibited comparable anti-stress activity in mice.


ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTI-ARTHRITIC AND ANTI-OSTEOPOROTIC ACTIVITIES
T. cordifolia is mentioned to treat vatarakta (gouty arthritis) and daha (burning sensation) in various Ayurvedic texts . It is traditionally used in compound formulations for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The alcoholic extract of T. cordifolia has been found to exert anti-inflammatory actions in models of acute and subacute inflammation.[44] The water extract of the stem of neem-giloe [The T. cordifolia that grow on Azadirachta indica (neem)] significantly inhibited acute inflammatory response evoked by carrageenin in a dose of 50 mg/100 g given orally and intraperitoneally. A significant inhibition of primary and secondary phases of inflammation was observed in a model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited antibody formation by typhoid "H" antigen. A mild analgesic effect of its own as well as potentiation of morphine analgesia has been reported. In another study aqueous extract of T. cordifolia showed a significat antiinflammatory effect in the cotton pellet granuloma and formalin induced arthritis model, it's effect was comparable with indomethacin and its mode of action appeared to resemble that of nonsteroidal antiinflamatory ageant. The dried stem of T. cordifolia produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and subacute models of inflammation. T. cordifolia was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in acute inflammation, although in subacute inflammation, the drug was inferior to phenylbutazone. The aqueous extract of stem was reported to exert a significant anti-inflammatory effect in both cotton pellet–induced granuloma (1, 250 and 500 mg/kg given orally) and formalin-induced arthritis (1 mg/kg given orally) rat models.

ANTI-ALLERGIC ACTIVITY

T. cordifolia is used for the treatment of kasa (cough) and swasa (asthma), which is described in various texts of Ayurveda . T. cordifolia is traditionally used for the treatment of asthma, and the juice is also employed for the treatment of chronic coughs.[49] In a clinical study, 100% relief was reported from sneezing in 83% of the patients on treatment with T. cordifolia,. Similary, there was relief from nasal discharge was reported in 69%; from nasal obstructions 61% and from nasal pruritus, in 71%. In placebo group, there was relief from sneezing only in 21% patients; from nasal discharge, in 16.2%; from nasal obstruction, in 17%; and from nasal pruritus, in 12%. Thus, T. cordifolia significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis and was well tolerated.[50] The anti-allergic and bronchodilator properties of an aqueous extract of the stem evaluated on histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, capillary permeability in mice and mast cell disruption in rats showed that it significantly decreased bronchospasm induced by 5% histamine aerosol, decreased capillary permeability and reduced the number of disrupted mast cells.

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

T. cordifolia is mentioned as vishaghni, vishahara and tridoshashamaka in various texts of Ayurveda. A significant increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in brain, along with its decrease in heart, was observed in diabetic rats. Tinospora cordifolia treatment decreased the concentrations of glutathione reductase (GSH) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the tissues of diabetics rats. Alcoholic extract of the root of T. cordifolia (TCREt) administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally to diabetic rats for 6 weeks normalized the antioxidant status of heart and brain. The effect of T. cordifolia root extract was better than glibenclamide (600 µ/kg) although Insulin (6 units/kg) restored all the parameters to normal status. T. cordifolia has also been reported to elevate GSH levels, expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and Cu-Zn SOD genes. The herb also exhibited strong free radical-scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia inhibited Fenton (FeSO4) reaction and radiation - mediated 2-deoxyribose degradation in a dose-dependent fashion, with an IC50 value of 700 µ/mL for both Fenton and radiation-mediated 2-DR degradation. Similarly, it showed a moderate but dose-dependent inhibition of chemically generated superoxide anion at 500 µ/mL concentration and above, with an IC50 value of 2000 µ/mL. In various studies, T. cordifolia was found effective in iron-mediated lipid damage and gamma-ray-induced protein damage, amelioration of cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity, alteration of lethal effects of gamma rays, induction of enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice, free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation, and nitric oxide scavenging effetcs. The extract of T. cordifolia has demonstrated antioxidant action in the alloxan induced diabetes model as well.


ANTINEOPLASTIC AND RADIO-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY

Intraperitoneal injection of the alcoholic extract of T. cordifolia has been shown to Dalton's lymphoma (DL) bearing mice e stimulated macrophage functions likephagocytosis, antigen-presenting ability and secretion of Interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) as well as slowed tumor growth and increased lifespan of the tumor-bearing host. T. cordifolia was has beem shown effective in several other tumour models including Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. It induces proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in a tumor-bearing host, activates tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells, is effective against various cancers, killing the cancer cells very effectively in vitro inhibits skin carcinogenesis in mice, and inhibits experimental metastasis. T. cordifolia may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation.

ANTIPYRETIC AND ANTI-INFECTIVE ACTIVITY

Traditionally T. cordifolia is known for its jwarahara activity (antipyretic activity), as mentioned in Table 2. The water-soluble fraction of 95% ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia plant has shown significant antipyretic activity. In another experimental study, antipyretic effects have been reported in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of T. cordifolia stems. Various studies show remarkable anti-infective and antipyretic properties of T. cordifolia. Pre-treatment with T. cordifolia was shown to impart protection against mortality induced by intra-abdominal sepsis following coecal ligation in rats and significantly reduced mortality from induced by E. coli–induced peritonitis in mice.

HEPATO-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY

Various Ayurvedic preparations of T. corfifolia are indicated in pandu (anemia) and kamla (jaundice). A clinical study has shown that Guduchi plays an important role in normalization of altered liver functions (ALT, AST). The antihepatotoxic activity of T. cordifolia has been demonstrated in CCl4 induced liver damage, normallising liver function as assessed by morphological, biochemical (SGPT, SGOT, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin) and functional (pentobarbitone sleep time) tests. T. cordifolia revealed hepatoprotective action in goats. A significant increment in the functional capacities of rat peritoneal macrophages was observed following T. cordifolia treatment. Addition of extract for the first 6 weeks to chloroquine showed regression of spleen by 37% to 50% after 6 weeks and 45% to 69% after 6 months from the start of treatment. Likewise, decrease in IgM and increase in Hb, as well as wellbeing (Karnofsky performance scale), were observed. T. cordifolia prevents antitubercular drugs and bile salts induced hepatic damage, x and obstructive jaundice.[87] The extract has also exhibited in vitro inactivating property against hepatitis B and E surface antigens in 48 to 72 hours.

ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY

T. cordifolia is widely used in Ayurveda for treating diabetes mellitus. Various studies demonstrate amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats, reduction of blood sugar in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats and rabbits, significant reduction in blood glucose and brain lipids, increase in glucose tolerance in rodents,[92,93] increase in glucose metabolism, inhibitory effect on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia by pyrrolidine derivative, and significant hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits following administration of T. cordifolia.


IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY

In Ayurveda T. cordifolia is believed to have rasayana (rejuvenating), balya (tonic), vayah-sthapana (anti-aging), aayushyaprada (increases the lifespan), vrishya (aphrodisiac) and chakshusya (useful in eye disorders) properties . The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia are reported to have beneficial effects on the immune system and have been tested successfully for their immunomodulatory activity. The degradation of proteins due to photosensitization as assessed by Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was effectively reduced by simultaneous treatment with G1-4A/PPI (partially purified immunomodulator) from T. cordifolia during photosensitization. The novel (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan derived from the plant activates the immune system through the activation of macrophages via TLR6 signaling, NFkappaB translocation and cytokine production. Tinospora cordifolia differentially regulate elevation of cytokines as evidenced by the increased production of antiangiogenic agents IL-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1) in the B16F10-injected, extract-treated animals. The observed antiangiogenic activity of the plant T. cordifolia is related to the regulation of the levels of cytokines and growth factors in the blood. The aqueous extract of T. cordifolia was found to enhance phagocytosis in vitro. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts also induced an increase in antibody production in vivo. T. cordifolia extract (TCE) treatment caused significant reduction in eosinophil count and improved hemoglobin in HIV patients. Sixty percent patients receiving TCE and 20% on placebo reported decrease in the incidence of various symptoms associated with disease. Diabetic patients with foot ulcers on T. cordifolia as an adjuvant therapy showed significantly better final outcome with improvement in wound healing. Administration of T. cordifolia (200 mg/kg body weight) 1 hour before irradiation showed recovery of spleen weight from 49% of control in irradiated group to 93%; apoptosis, from 19% to 2.8%; DNA fragmentation, from 43% to 20.4%; macrophage adherence, from 75% of control to 120%; and macrophage spread size, from 8 µ to 15µ. It also stimulated proliferation in splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) before irradiation also increased levels of IL-1beta and GM-CSF from 56 pg/mL and 53 pg/mL in irradiated group to 59 pg/mL and 63 pg/mL, respectively. Similarly, radiation-induced decrease of antioxidant potential of plasma [32 Fe(2+) equiv.] as compared to control [132 Fe(2+) equiv.] was countered by administration of Tc before irradiation [74.2 Fe(2+) equiv.]. RTc treatment thus suggesting its radio-protective mechanism. Ten days of treatment with T. cordifolia (100 mg/kg/d) induced a significant (P < 0.01) increase in the number of (Colony Forming Units of ranulocyte-macrophage series (CFU-GM; 255 ± 49.32 vs. 38.51 ± 9.98). This suggests that activation of macrophages by T. cordifolia leads to increase in GM-CSF, which leads to leukocytosis and improved neutrophil function.

DIURETIC ACTIVITY
T. cordifolia has been described as useful in mutrakriccha (urinary trouble) separately and in the form of various formulations in Ayurveda, as mentioned in . In a scientific study on rats and human volunteers, T. cordifolia was found to have diuretic effects.It was also found effective in modulation of morphology and some gluconeogenic enzymes activity in diabetic rat kidney.


CARDIOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY

Bhavprahash Nighantu and Shaligram Nighantu describe T. cordifolia to have hrudya (cardioprotective) properties and is useful in hridroga (cardiac disorders). A dose-dependent reduction in infarct size and in serum and heart lipid peroxide levels were observed with prior treatment with T. cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion–induced myocardial infarction in rats. The stem extract has been normalize alterations in the lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats indiectly benefiting the heart. Administration of the extract of T. cordifolia roots (2.5 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in alloxan diabetic rats.

ANTI-LEPROTIC ACTIVITY
T. cordifolia is used for its kushtahara (anti-leprotic) properties, along with wide use in kandu and visarpa (types of skin disorders) and has been shown to exert anti-leprotic activity in a combination formulation.

GASTROINTESTINAL AND ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY
Ayurvedic properties of T. cordifolia include sangrahi, arshahara, aruchinashaka, dipana, agnidipana, chardihara, trishnahara, trishnanashaka and hikkahara. Treatment with a formulation containing T. cordifolia has been shown to reduce ulcer index total acidity, with an increase in the pH of gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats and in the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats

OSTEOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY
Rats treated with T. cordifolia (10 mg/kg body weight) showed an osteoprotective effect, as the bone loss in tibiae was slower than that in controls. Serum osteocalcin and cross-laps levels were significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that extract of T. cordifolia has the potential for being used as antiosteoporotic agent

CONCLUSION
The pharmacological actions attributed to Tinospora cordifolia in Ayurvedic texts have been validated by a remarkable body of modern evidence suggesting that this drug has immense potential in modern pharmacotheraoeutics.



It has completely stopped my frequent fevers due to UTI

The following study aptly describes the all-round properties of Tinospora cordifolia, published in the "Indian Journal of Pharmacology" 2003; 35: 83-91 EDUCATIONAL FORUM

CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (GUDUCHI/GILOY)

S.S. SINGH, S.C. PANDEY, S. SRIVASTAVA, V.S. GUPTA, B. PATRO,A.C. GHOSH
Chembiotek Research International, Block-BN, Plot-7, Sector-V, Salt Lake Electronic Complex, Kolkata-700 091
.

Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) is a widely used shrub in folk and ayurvedic systems of medicine. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. The notable medicinal properties reported are anti-diabetic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic activities.Anti-diabetic anti-oxidant alternative medicine phytochemistry

Guduchi is widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for its general tonic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic properties. The plant is used in ayurvedic, "Rasayanas" to improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections. The root of this plant is known for its anti-stress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial activities. Authors investigated earlier one of the plants of the family Menispermaceae and found that the constituents and activities were similar to other reports.

The whole plant and the juice of the leaves is traditionally used in various mental disorders and is regarded as one of the best psychotropic drugs. Guduchi also has a direct Medhya Rasayana effect, which means that it enhances all aspects of mind power, including comprehension (Dhi), memory (Dhriti) and recollection (Smriti). The plant is used to improve the immune system and the body's resistance to infections. Guduchi helps increase the effectiveness of white blood cells and builds up the body's immune system. Guduchi is also used as an immunomodulator in immune-suppression of obstructive jaundice, hepatic fibrosis, peritonitis and sepsis.

A variety of constituents have been isolated from Tinospora cordifolia plant and their structures were elucidated. They belong to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Leaves of this plant are rich in protein (11.2%) and are fairly rich in calcium and phosphorus.

Botanical Description:

Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook.F. & Thoms] is a large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub belonging to the family Menispermaceae It is distributed throughout tropical Indian subcontinent The stem of Tinospora cordifolia are rather succulent with long filiform fleshy aerial roots from the branches. The bark is creamy white to grey, deeply left spirally, the space in between being spotted with large rosette like lenticels. The leaves are membranous and cordate. The flowers are small and yellow or greenish yellow. In auxiliary and terminal racemes or racemose panicles, the male flowers are clustered and female are usually solitary. The drupes are ovoid, glossy, succulent, red and peasized. The seeds are curved. Fruits are fleshy and single seeded. Flowers grow during the summer and fruits during the winterS.

Type of Chemical Active principle with references Part in which present
Alkaloids Berberine (I)14-18, Palmatine (II)14-18, Stem
Tembetarine (III, 0.012%)14-18, Magnoflorine (IV, 0.075%)14-18,
Choline (V)14-18, Tinosporin14-18, Isocolumbin19, Palmatine19, Root
Tetrahydropalmatine (VI)19, Magnoflorine19
Glycosides 18-norclerodane glucoside (VII)20 Stem
Furanoid diterpene glucoside21,22 (VIII and IX)
Tinocordiside (X)23,24,Tinocordifolioside (XI)25-26.
Cordioside25,26, Cordifolioside A27,28, Cordifolioside B27,28,
Syringin (XII)29,30, Syringin-apiosylglycoside29,30,
Palmatosides C31, Palmatosides F31,
Cordifoliside A (XIII)28,32, Cordiofoliside B28,32,
Cordifoliside C28,32, Cordifoliside D28,32, Cordifoliside E28,32,84

TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: CHEMISTRY & MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Diterpenoid Furanolactone XIV 33, Whole plant
Lactones Clerodane derivatives XV, XVI34,35 and
XVII [(5R,10R)-4R-8R-dihydroxy-2S-3R:15,16-
diepoxy-cleroda-13 (16), 14-dieno-17,12S:
18,1S-dilactone]36 and Tinosporon37,
Tinosporides XVIII1,22,38-43 and XIX1,22,38-43,
Jateorine (XX)1,38-43, Columbin (XXI)1,22,38-43
Steroids b -sitosterol (XXII)44-47, d-sitosterol44-47, 20b- Aerial part
hydroxy ecdysone (XXIII)44-47.
Ecdysterone (XXIV)48-50, Makisterone A (XXV)48-50, Stem
Sesquiterpenoid Tinocordifolin51. Stem
Aliphatic Octacosanol (XXVI)45-47, Heptacosanol (XXVII)45-47, Whole plant
compound Nonacosan-15-one (XXVIII)45-47
Miscellaneous 3,(a,4-di hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-4-(4- Whole plant
compounds hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzyl)-tetrahydrofuran45-47.
Jatrorrhizine (XXIX)52. Root
Tinosporidine17,47,53, Cordifol17,47,53, Whole plant
Cordifelone17,47,53,
N-trans-feruloyl tyramine as diacetate54,
Giloin48,55, Giloinin48,55, Tinosporic acid48,55.
 

The physical characteristic and chemical composition of the starch obtained from Guduchi Satwa (extract) were carried out and the polysaccharide was found to consist chiefly of 1g4 linked glucan with occasionally branched points. Its similarities and differences from amylose were elucidated. An arabinogalactan had been isolated from the dried stems of T. cordifolia.

Medicinal properties

The stem of Tinospora cordifolia is one of the constituents of several ayurvedic preparations used in general debility, dyspepsia, fever and urinary diseases. The stem is bitter, stomachic, diuretic,stimulates bile secretion, causes constipation, allays thirst, burning sensation, vomiting, enriches the blood and cures jaundice. The extract of its stem is useful in skin diseases. The root and stem of T. cordifolia are prescribed in combination with other drugs as an anti-dote to snake bite and scorpion sting. Dry barks of T. cordifolia has anti-spasmodic, antipyretic59,anti-allergic60, anti-inflammatory and anti-leprotic properties.The aqueous extract of the stem antagonizes the effect of agonists such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, bradykinin and prostaglandins E1 and E2 on the rabbit smooth muscle, relaxes the intestinal,uterine smooth muscle and inhibits the constrictor response of histamine and acetylcholine on smooth muscle. Intravenous exposure to aqueous extract of T. cordifolia in doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/kg body

Tinospora cordifolia's CHEMISTRY & MEDICINAL PROPERTIES: It produces a temporary but marked fall in blood pressure and bradycardia in anaes-thetized dogs. T. cordifolia is widely used in Indian ayurvedic medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous T. cordifolia root extract to alloxan diabetic rats caused a significant reduction in blood glucose and brain lipids. Though the aqueous extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg could elicit significant anti-hyperglycemic effect in different animal models, its effect was equivalent to only one unit/kg of insulin. It is reported that the daily administration of either alcoholic or aqueous extract of T. cordifolia decreases the blood glucose level and increases glucose tolerance in rodents. Aqueous extract also caused a reduction in blood sugar in alloxaninduced hyperglycemia in rats and rabbits in the dose of 400 mg/kg. However, histological examination of pancreas has not revealed any evidence of regeneration of b-cells of islets of Langerhans and the possible mode of action of the plant is through glucose metabolism. The aqueous extract has also exhibited some inhibitory effect on adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia. Ethyl acetate extract of its roots has afforded a pyrrolidine derivative with hypoglycemic activity in rabbits.

Anti-inflammatory activity of T. cordifolia
Studies on induced edema and arthritis, and on human arthritis proved the anti-inflammatory potency of the water extract of this plant. Phase I and Phase II of adjuvant induced arthritis were also inhibited. The anti-inflammatory activity of this plant resembles that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. It also has weak antipyretic action and is a morphine potentiator(g)

Another study has also revealed significant hypoglycemic effect of extract of leaves in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. However, the extract had no significant effect on total lipid levels in normal or treated rabbits.

T. cordifolia is reported to benefit the immune system in a variety of ways. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia have been tested successfully for immuno-modulatory activity. Pre-treatment with T. cordifolia was to impart protection against mortality induced by intra-abdominal sepsis following coecal ligation in rats. It has also significantly reduced the mortality from E. coli induced peritonitis in mice.In a clinical study, it has afforded protection in cholestatic patients against E. coli infection. These activities are not due to its anti-bacterial activity as shown by the negative in-vitro anti-bacterial activity of the plant extract. It is reported that the treatment in rats had resulted in significant leucocytosis and predominant neutrophilia. It has been also observed that it stimulates the macrophages as evidenced by an increase in the number and % phagocytosis of S.aureaus by peritoneal macrophages in rats. Other workers have also supported these observations. The phagocytic and Intra-cellular killing capacity of polymorphs in rats, tested at 3.5 h after E. coli infection were significant.The anti-stress and tonic property of the plant was clinically tested and it was found that it brought about good response in children with moderate degree of behaviour disorders and mental deficit. It has also significantly improved the I.Q. levels.The hepatoprotective action of T. cordifolia was reported in one of the experiment in which goats treated with T. cordifolia have shown significant clinical and hemato-biochemical improvement in CCl4 induced hepatopathy. Extract of T. cordifolia has also exhibited in vitro inactivating property against Hepatitis B and E surface antigen in 48-72 h.The aqueous extract of T. cordifolia exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect on cotton pellet granuloma and formalin induced arthritis models. Its effect was comparable with Indomethacin and its mode of action appeared to resemble that of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. The dried stem of T. cordifolia produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and subacute models of inflammation. T.cordifolia was found to be more effective than acetylsalicylic acid in acute inflammation. But in subacute inflammation, the drug was inferior to phenylbutazone90. In a clinical evaluation, a compound preparation 'Rumalaya' containing T. cordifolia was reported to significantly reduce the pain in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The aqueous extract of roots of T. cordifolia hasshown the anti-oxidant action in alloxan diabetes rats. The administration of the extract of T. cordifolia roots (2.5, 50 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids in alloxan diabetic rats. It has been found that guduchi killed the HeLa cells very effectively in vitro and thus it indicates that guduchi needs attention as an anti-neoplastic agent.In this study exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25,50 and 100 mg/ml of guduchi extract (methanol, aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose dependent but significant increase in cell killing when compared to non drug treated controls.Ether extract of the stem distillate of aerial part of T.cordifolia has inhibited the in vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 1:50,000 dilution93. Its ethanolic extract has exhibited significant antipyretic activity in experimental rats. 'Septilin' syrup, a compound preparation containing T. cordifolia (7.82% in 5 ml of syrup) was found to elicit good clinical response in children suffering from upper respiratory tract infection and chronic otitis media.The Ayurveda literature reports that it can cause constipation, if taken regularly in high doses; it hasno side effect and toxicity.

                            Tinospora cordifolia

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