List of Study Papers & References on Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri as a Potent Brain Tonic

1. In clinical and preclinical studies, Bacopa monnieri has been shown to contribute to enhanced exploratory behavior and greater desire to seek out novelty, sharpened memory, and increased learning and retention. A placebo-controlled, double blind study, tested the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri in children. For six weeks, 50 normal school children split into two groups were given Bacopa monnieri and placebo respectively. At the conclusion, they were evaluated for attention, concentration, and memory. Bacopa monnieri was shown to improve all these aspects significantly.

2. The use of herbal extracts to improve brain function is becoming increasingly popular and, in a study by Bhattacharya et. al, reported in Phytotherapeutic Research 14 (3), 174-9 (2000), the effects of the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monniera (BM), also known as Bacopa monnieri, were compared with Deprenyl, and both substances were assessed as to their effect on brain chemicals associated with oxidative stress and memory function.

In the study carried out in rats, a standardised extract of Bacopa for 7, 14 or 21 days was compared with deprenyl. After 14 and 21 days of Bacopa there was an increase of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) in all brain areas, whereas deprenyl showed increased antioxidant activities only in the frontal cortex and the striatum.

The authors suggest that the antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of Bacopa may partly explain the cognitive-facilitating action of the herb.

Bacopa monnieri as stress reliever

Bacopa monnieri induces a sense of calm and peace in its users. It is unique in its ability to invigorate mental processes whilst reducing the effects of stress and nervous anxiety. This makes Bacopa monnieri extremely applicable in highly stressful work or study environments where clarity of thought is as important as being able to work under pressure. Many people have the intelligence to perform to strict standards, but lack the composure and self-confidence to reach them. Additionally, Bacopa monnieri helps soothe the restlessness and distraction that nervousness causes. Bacopa monnieri is ideal for students and workers faced with this problem.

Bacopa monnieri increases memory

1. Bacopa monnieri has shown to be helpful in treating ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), age-related mental deterioration and concentration difficulties due to stress, it may be incredibly beneficial where there is no health condition, but only the desire to improve cognitive function. An animal study in 1982 found that Bacopa monnieri improved the initial acquisition of learned information as well as retention ability. The study also showed that Bacopa monnieri delayed the length of time it took for the information to become extinct or 'unlearned'. Bacopa monnieri is as eminently suited to a healthy, young student looking to maximize their ability to focus and study, as to an elderly person hoping to regain their memory. It enables people to optimize their intellectual potential and mental vitality for the betterment of both personal and professional pursuits.

2. Central Drug Institute of India discovered that Bacopa monnieri contained two main active ingredients, Bacosides A and B. The neurobiological effects of these isolated molecules were found to increase protein kinase activity and new protein synthesis, specifically in cells in regions of the brain associated with long-term memory. They determined that this long-treasured herb had the amazing ability to facilitate learning, memory and concentration by stimulating neural activity.

Further Study list:

1.Bacopa monnieri modulates endogenous cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oxidative markers in prepubertal mice brain.

Shinomol GK, Muralidhara.

Phytomedicine. 2010 Sep 16.  PMID: 20850955 
2.Behavioral Deficit and Decreased GABA Receptor Functional Regulation in the Hippocampus of Epileptic Rats: Effect of Bacopa monnieri.

Mathew J, Gangadharan G, Kuruvilla KP, Paulose CS.

Neurochem Res. 2010 Sep 7.  PMID: 20821261 
3.Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolaemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts.

Duangjai A, Ingkaninan K, Limpeanchob N.

Nat Prod Res. 2010 Jul 8:1-12.  PMID: 20623425 
4.Baccoside A suppresses epileptic-like seizure/convulsion in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Pandey R, Gupta S, Tandon S, Wolkenhauer O, Vera J, Gupta SK.

Seizure. 2010 Sep;19(7):439-42. Epub 2010 Jul 3.PMID: 20598917 
5.Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

Morgan A, Stevens J.

J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9.PMID: 20590480 
6.Prophylactic treatment with Bacopa monnieri leaf powder mitigates paraquat-induced oxidative perturbations and lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.

Hosamani R, Muralidhara.

Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2010 Apr;47(2):75-82.PMID: 20521619 
7.Decreased GABA receptor in the striatum and spatial recognition memory deficit in epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside-A.

Mathew J, Soman S, Sadanandan J, Paulose CS.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):255-61. Epub 2010 May 6.PMID: 20451596 
8.Wound healing and protease inhibition activity of Bacoside-A, isolated from Bacopa monnieri wettest.

Sharath R, Harish BG, Krishna V, Sathyanarayana BN, Swamy HM.

Phytother Res. 2010 Aug;24(8):1217-22.PMID: 20213670 
9.Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside A.

Mathew J, Peeyush Kumar T, Khan RS, Paulose CS.

Epilepsy Behav. 2010 Apr;17(4):441-7. Epub 2010 Feb 11.PMID: 20153260 
10. Effect of bavistin on in vitro plant conversion from encapsulated uninodal microcuttings of micropropagated Bacopa monnieri (L.)--an Ayurvedic herb.

Ramseh M, Marx R, Mathan G, Pandian SK.

J Environ Biol. 2009 May;30(3):441-4.PMID: 20120475 
11.Increased excitability and metabolism in pilocarpine induced epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

Mathew J, Paul J, Nandhu MS, Paulose CS.

Fitoterapia. 2010 Sep;81(6):546-51. Epub 2010 Feb 1.PMID: 20117182 
12.Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A for ameliorating epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.

Mathew J, Paul J, Nandhu MS, Paulose CS.

Fitoterapia. 2010 Jul;81(5):315-22. Epub 2009 Nov 26.PMID: 19944749 
13.Severe hepatotoxicity by Indian Ayurvedic herbal products: a structured causality assessment.

Teschke R, Bahre R.

Ann Hepatol. 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):258-66.PMID: 19841509 
14.Cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri in Alzheimer's disease model.

Uabundit N, Wattanathorn J, Mucimapura S, Ingkaninan K.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 8;127(1):26-31. Epub 2009 Oct 4.PMID: 19808086 
15.Neuroprotective efficacy of Bacopa monnieri against rotenone induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

Hosamani R, Muralidhara.

Neurotoxicology. 2009 Nov;30(6):977-85. Epub 2009 Sep 8.PMID: 19744517 
16.Upregulation of 5-HT2C receptors in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: antagonism by Bacopa monnieri.

Krishnakumar A, Nandhu MS, Paulose CS.

Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Oct;16(2):225-30. Epub 2009 Aug 22.PMID: 19700373 
17.Silica-based monolithic column with evaporative light scattering detector for HPLC analysis of bacosides and apigenin in Bacopa monnieri.

Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Singh V, Kaur I.

J Sep Sci. 2009 Aug;32(15-16):2812-8.PMID: 19606439 
18. Down-regulation of cerebellar 5-HT(2C) receptors in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in rats: therapeutic role of Bacopa monnieri extract.

Krishnakumar A, Abraham PM, Paul J, Paulose CS.

J Neurol Sci. 2009 Sep 15;284(1-2):124-8. Epub 2009 May 13.PMID: 19439326 
19.Improvement of pseudojujubogenin glycosides production from regenerated Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and enhanced yield by elicitors.

Kamonwannasit S, Phrompittayarat W, Ingkaninan K, Tanaka H, Putalun W.

Z Naturforsch C. 2008 Nov-Dec;63(11-12):879-83.PMID: 19227838 
20. Evaluation of antifertility potential of Bacopa monnieri in male mouse.

Singh A, Singh SK.

Contraception. 2009 Jan;79(1):71-9. Epub 2008 Sep 18.PMID: 19041444  21.

Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.

Phrompittayarat W, Wittaya-areekul S, Jetiyanon K, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Ingkaninan K.

Planta Med. 2008 Nov;74(14):1756-63. Epub 2008 Oct 24.PMID: 18951336 
22.Neuronutrient impact of Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy in brain aging.

Singh RH, Narsimhamurthy K, Singh G.

Biogerontology. 2008 Dec;9(6):369-74. Epub 2008 Oct 18. Review.PMID: 18931935 
23.Immunochromatographic assay for the detection of pseudojujubogenin glycosides.

Imsungnoen N, Phrompittayarat W, Ingkaninan K, Tanaka H, Putalun W.

Phytochem Anal. 2009 Jan;20(1):64-7.PMID: 18816474 
24.Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri on beta-amyloid-induced cell death in primary cortical culture.

Limpeanchob N, Jaipan S, Rattanakaruna S, Phrompittayarat W, Ingkaninan K.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Oct 30;120(1):112-7. Epub 2008 Aug 5.PMID: 18755259 
25.Iron-induced oxidative stress in a macrophyte: a chemometric approach.

Sinha S, Basant A, Malik A, Singh KP.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009 Feb;72(2):585-95. Epub 2008 Aug 15.PMID: 18706694 
26.Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B.

J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):707-13.PMID: 18611150 
27.In vitro safety evaluation and anticlastogenic effect of BacoMind on human lymphocytes.

Deb DD, Kapoor P, Dighe RP, Padmaja R, Anand MS, D'Souza P, Deepak M, Murali B, Agarwal A.

Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 Feb;21(1):7-23.PMID: 18478974 
28.Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract.

Khan R, Krishnakumar A, Paulose CS.

Epilepsy Behav. 2008 Jan;12(1):54-60.PMID: 18086456 
29.Effect of Fagonia Arabica (Dhamasa) on in vitro thrombolysis.

Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Nov 6;7:36.PMID: 17986325 
30.Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract in epilepsy and effect of glucose supplementation during hypoxia: glutamate receptor gene expression.

Paulose CS, Chathu F, Khan SR, Krishnakumar A.

Neurochem Res. 2008 Sep;33(9):1663-71. Epub 2007 Oct 18.PMID: 17940877 
31.Multistage and tandem mass spectrometry of glycosylated triterpenoid saponins isolated from Bacopa monnieri: comparison of the information content provided by different techniques.

Zehl M, Pittenauer E, Jirovetz L, Bandhari P, Singh B, Kaul VK, Rizzi A, Allmaier G.

Anal Chem. 2007 Nov 1;79(21):8214-21. Epub 2007 Oct 6.PMID: 17918912 
32.A rapid RP-HPTLC densitometry method for simultaneous determination of major flavonoids in important medicinal plants.

Bhandari P, Kumar N, Gupta AP, Singh B, Kaul VK.

J Sep Sci. 2007 Aug;30(13):2092-6.PMID: 17654615 
33.Determination of pseudojujubogenin glycosides from Bacopa monnieri based on immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody against bacopaside I.

Phrompittayarat W, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Jetiyanon K, Wittaya-Areekul S, Ingkaninan K.

Phytochem Anal. 2007 Sep;18(5):411-8.PMID: 17624902 
34.Safety evaluation of a standardized phytochemical composition extracted from Bacopa monnieri in Sprague--Dawley rats.

Joshua Allan J, Damodaran A, Deshmukh NS, Goudar KS, Amit A.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Oct;45(10):1928-37. Epub 2007 Apr 27.PMID: 17560704 
35.Preferential accumulation of cadmium and chromium: toxicity in Bacopa monnieri L. under mixed metal treatments.

Shukla OP, Dubey S, Rai UN.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007 Apr;78(3-4):252-7. Epub 2007 May 10. No abstract available. PMID: 17492241 
36.Cucurbitacins from Bacopa monnieri.

Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Kaul VK.

Phytochemistry. 2007 May;68(9):1248-54. Epub 2007 Apr 17.PMID: 17442350 
37.An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay using polyclonal antibodies against bacopaside I.

Phrompittayarat W, Putalun W, Tanaka H, Wittaya-Areekul S, Jetiyanon K, Ingkaninan K.

Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Feb 12;584(1):1-6. Epub 2006 Nov 12.PMID: 17386577 
38.Triterpene saponins from Bacopa monnieri and their antidepressant effects in two mice models.

Zhou Y, Shen YH, Zhang C, Su J, Liu RH, Zhang WD.

J Nat Prod. 2007 Apr;70(4):652-5. Epub 2007 Mar 8.PMID: 17343408 
39.Estimation of twelve bacopa saponins in Bacopa monnieri extracts and formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Murthy PB, Raju VR, Ramakrisana T, Chakravarthy MS, Kumar KV, Kannababu S, Subbaraju GV.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Jun;54(6):907-11.PMID: 16755069 
40.Evaluation of the alkaline Comet assay conducted with the wetlands plant Bacopa monnieri L. as a model for ecogenotoxicity assessment.

Vajpayee P, Dhawan A, Shanker R.

Environ Mol Mutagen. 2006 Aug;47(7):483-9.PMID: 16649188 

in Bacopa monnieri L.

Mishra S, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD, Govindarajan R, Kuriakose SV, Prasad MN.

Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006 Jan;44(1):25-37. Epub 2006 Feb 21.PMID: 16545573 
42.Micropropagation: a tool for the production of high quality plant-based medicines.

Debnath M, Malik CP, Bisen PS.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006 Feb;7(1):33-49. Review.PMID: 16472132 
43.Bacosterol glycoside, a new 13,14-seco-steroid glycoside from Bacopa monnieri.

Bhandari P, Kumar N, Singh B, Kaul VK.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Feb;54(2):240-1.PMID: 16462073 
44.Antibacterial activity of traditional therapeutic coastal medicinal plants against some pathogens.

Ravikumar S, Nazar S, Nuralshiefa A, Abideen S.

J Environ Biol. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl):383-6.PMID: 16334271 
45.Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri.

Sivaramakrishna C, Rao CV, Trimurtulu G, Vanisree M, Subbaraju GV.

Phytochemistry. 2005 Dec;66(23):2719-28. Epub 2005 Nov 15.PMID: 16293276 
46.Effect of iron on lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and bacoside-A content in medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri L.

Sinha S, Saxena R.

Chemosphere. 2006 Mar;62(8):1340-50. Epub 2005 Oct 10.PMID: 16219336 
47.Cadmium accumulation and its influence on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system in an aquatic plant, Bacopa monnieri L.

Singh S, Eapen S, D'Souza SF.

Chemosphere. 2006 Jan;62(2):233-46. Epub 2005 Jul 1.PMID: 15993469 
48.In vitro studies of Bacopa monnieri--an important medicinal plant with reference to its biochemical variations.

Mohapatra HP, Rath SP.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Apr;43(4):373-6.PMID: 15875724 
49.Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture bacoside A in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC.

Deepak M, Sangli GK, Arun PC, Amit A.

Phytochem Anal. 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):24-9.PMID: 15688952 
50.The need for establishing identities of 'bacoside A and B', the putative major bioactive saponins of Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri.

Deepak M, Amit A.

Phytomedicine. 2004 Feb;11(2-3):264-8. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 15070183 
51.Phytotoxic and antimicrobial constituents of Bacopa monnieri and Holmskioldia sanguinea.

Chaudhuri PK, Srivastava R, Kumar S, Kumar S.

Phytother Res. 2004 Feb;18(2):114-7.PMID: 15022161 
52.Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain.

Chowdhuri DK, Parmar D, Kakkar P, Shukla R, Seth PK, Srimal RC.

Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):639-45.PMID: 12410544 
53.Chronic effects of Bacopa monnieri on human memory.

Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, Smoker J.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Aug;27(2):279-81.PMID: 12093601 
54.Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice.

Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):281-5.PMID: 12065164 
55.Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

D'Souza P, Deepak M, Rani P, Kadamboor S, Mathew A, Chandrashekar AP, Agarwal A.

Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16(2):197-8.PMID: 11933129 
56.Mast cell stabilising activity of Bacopa monnieri.

Samiulla DS, Prashanth D, Amit A.

Fitoterapia. 2001 Mar;72(3):284-5.PMID: 11295306 
57.Traditional Indian systems of medicine.
Lodha R, Bagga A.

Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000 Jan;29(1):37-41. Review.PMID: 10748962 
58.Cardiovascular effects of Bacopa monnieri (L.) pennel extract in rabbits.

Rashid S, Lodhi F, Ahmad M, Usmanghani K.

Pak J Pharm Sci. 1990 Jul;3(2):57-62.PMID: 16414671 

Further References:
# Khare, C. P. (2003). Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage, Botany. Springer. pp. 89. ISBN 9783540010265.
# Rajani, M., et al. "Bacopa monnieri (Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell) - A Medhya Rasaayana Drug of Ayurveda" in Ramawat, K. G., Ed. (2004). Biotechnology of Medicinal Plants: Vitalizer and Therapeutic Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.
# C. Stough, J. Lloyd, J. Clarke, L. Downey, C. Hutchison, T. Rodgers, P. Nathan (2001). "The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Bacopa monnieri) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects". Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156 (4): 4814. doi:10.1007/s002130100815. PMID 11498727.
# S. Roodenrys, D. Booth, S. Bulzomi, A. Phipps, C. Micallef, J. Smoker (2002). "Chronic effects of Bacopa monnieri (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory". Neuropsychopharmacology (Wollongong) 27 (2): 279. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00419-5. PMID 12093601.
# Stough C, Downey LA, Lloyd J et al. (2008). "Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa Monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial." Phytother Res. 22:1629-1634.
# Dhanasekaran M, Tharakan B, Holcomb LA et al. (2007). "Neuroprotective mechanisms of ayurvedic antidementia botanical Bacopa monniera." Phytother Res. 21:965-969.
# Pravina K, Ravindra KR, Goudar KS et al. (2007). Safety evaluation of BacoMind in healthy volunteers: a phase I study." Phytomedicine. 14:301-308.
# Puri, H.S. (2003) RASAYANA: Ayurvedic Herbs for Longevity and Rejuvenation. Taylor & Francis, London, pages.94-97
# Prof P.V Sharma, Dravya Guna Vigyana, Vol II, pg 6-8
# The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India, Part I, Vol.II, pg 25-26
# R.N Chopra, S.L. Nayar, I.C. Chopra, NISC, Glossary Of Indian Medicinal Plants pg 32
# R.N Chopra, S.L. Nayar, I.C. Chopra, NISC, Supplementary of Glossary Of Indian Medicinal Plants pg 10