Bala/Berela/Beejband/Janglimethi/Velluram/Country mallow (Sida Cordifolia)


Phytochemical: The whole plant (including leaves, seeds, stems and roots) contains about 0.085% alkaloids. The seeds contain 0.32% of alkaloid. The seeds contain more alkaloids that that is found in either the stems, roots or leaves. The whole plant also contains fatty oil, phytosterol, mucins, potassium nitrate, and resins

No tannin or glucoside is found. 

The stem of this plant contains a number of active compounds, including small amounts of an essential oil, and most important, 1-2% alkaloids composed mainly of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with ephedrine ranging from 30-90%, depending on the source. Sida cordifolia extract contains 0.8% to 1.2% of the alkaloid ephedrine

Bioactivity: Anti-inflammatory: the methanolic extract of the aerial parts and hepatoprotective: the powdered roots aerial parts and their aqueous extract (Kumar & Mishra 1997).  Note: The ethyl acetate extract of the plant growing in Bangladesh has cytotoxic and antibacterial activities (Islam, Haque and Mossadik, 2003).  

Comparison of Sida cordifolia and Ephedra sp

Ephedrine, a 2-aminophenylpropane alkaloid was first isolated from Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ma-Huang). Ephedra gerardiana. Wall. ex Stapf  is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine.  Ephedrine is a potent bronchodilator. Another alkaloid reported form Ephedra sp is pseudoephederine which seems to be present in lower concentrations in Sida cordifolia.

 

                                          

 

Structure of Ephedrine

Ephedrine content of Sida cordifolia is less as compared to Ephedra sinica. This suggests feeble analeptic and central nervous system stimulating effects of Sida cordifolia. However Sida cordifolia contains other bronchodilator alkaloids like vasicinone, vasicine and vasicinol which are absent in Ephedra sinica. In terms of presence of alkaloids like vasicinone, vasicine and vasicinol, Sida cordifolia resembles with Adhatoda vasica Nees. N.O.: Acanthaceae.

Ayurvedic formulations containing Sida cordifolia should not be prescribed with cardiac glycosides, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (Dawson, Eamshaw and Graham 1995) and ergot alkaloids. Although no drug interactions have been reported with Sida cordifolia preparations but owing to great variation of active constituent, great care should be taken while prescribing Sida cordifolia with cardiac glycosides (can cause disturbance of heart rhythm), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (as it can potentate the symapthomimetic activity) and ergot alkaloids (can cause hypertension).

Although little data is available on active constituent of Sida cordifolia but according to one study a minute dose of Sida cordifolia given intravenously, causes a sharp and well marked rise of blood pressure in anaesthetized or decerebrated animals which is maintained for some time (Chopra 1982). This pharmacological activity of Sida cordifolia resembles with ephedrine. According to Mark Blumenthal effects of ephedrine should not be confused with Ephedra sinica. This is a typical example of difference in pharmacological activities of whole herb and isolated constituents. Similar concept applies when we compare Sida cordifolia with ephedrine.

Furthermore, Sida cordifolia contains other bronchodilating principles which ephedra does not have in particular vasicinone, vasicine, and vasicinol. Ayurveda physicians use it as an antipyretic in febrile and infectious diseases. Sida cordifolia is also useful in the treatment of chronic broncho-pulmonary conditions characterized by bronchospasm and cough

Sida cordifolia has ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine along with other compounds as active ingredients that stimulate the cardio-vascular system and CNS. It is considered to have diaphoretic, diuretic, central nervous system stimulating and anti-asthmatic properties. The stem of Sida cordifolia contains a number of active compounds, including small amounts of an essential oil, 1-2% alkaloids composed mainly of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with ephedrine ranging from 30-90%, depending on the source. It is a rejuvenating herb, an aphrodisiac herb which helps in curing those diseases that occur due to inflammation of the nerves.

One of its uses is in weight loss too as the ephedrine alkaloids control metabolism in human body.

Therapeutic classification index:

 

   

Sida cordifolia

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