List of References & Study Papers on Emblica officinalis

Important Study

Nutr J. 2010; 9: 3.
Published online 2010 January 22. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-3

The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

Monica H Carlsen,#1 Bente L Halvorsen,#1 Kari Holte,1 Siv K Bhn,1 Steinar Dragland,2 Laura Sampson,3 Carol Willey,3 Haruki Senoo,4 Yuko Umezono,4 Chiho Sanada,4 Ingrid Barikmo,5 Nega Berhe,1 Walter C Willett,3 Katherine M Phillips,6 David R Jacobs, Jr,1,7 and Rune Blomhoffcorresponding author1
1Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
2The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research Bioforsk st Apelsvoll, Kapp, Norway
3Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
4Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita City, Japan
5Faculty of Health, Nutrition and Management, Akershus University College, Lillestrm, Norway
6The Biochemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
7The Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA


Excerpt of the berries, fruit and vegetable analyses in the Antioxidant Food Table.
  Antioxidant content mmol/100 ga) n Min Max
African baobab tree, leaves dry, crushed 48.1 1 - -
Amla (Indian gooseberry), dried 261.5 1 - -
Apples 0.4 15 0.1 1.22
Apples, dried 3.8 3 1.86 6.07
Apricots, dried 3.1 4 1.32 4.67
Artichoke 3.5 8 0.69 4.76
Bilberries, dried 48.3 1 - -
Black olives 1.7 6 0.23 3.25
Blueberry jam 3.5 4 2.68 4.71
Broccoli, cooked 0.5 4 0.25 0.85
Chilli, red and green 2.4 3 2.08 2.92
Curly kale 2.8 4 1.62 4.09
Dates, dried 1.7 2 1.53 1.88
Dog rose, products of dried hip 69.4 3 54.30 75.84
Dog rose, wild, dried 78.1 1 - -
Dog rose, wild, fresh 24.3 3 12.65 34.49
Fruit from the African baobab tree 10.8 1 - -
Mango, dried 1.7 2 0.58 2.82
Moringa Stenopetala, dried leaves, stem 11.9 1 - -
Moringa Stenopetala, fresh leaves, stem 3.7 1 - -
Okra/gumbo from Mali, dry, flour 4.2 1 - -
Oranges 0.9 3 0.83 1.08
Papaya 0.6 2 0.36 0.76
Plums, dried 3.2 1    
Pomegranate 1.8 6 0.88 2.26
Prunes 2.4 6 1.95 3.70
Strawberries 2.1 4 1.85 2.33
Zereshk, red sour berries 27.3 1 - -
mean value when n > 1


This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.
Nutr J. 2010; 9: 3.
Published online 2010 January 22. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-3.
Articles from Nutrition Journal are provided here courtesy of
BioMed Central

Further List of References  & Study papers.

1.Triphala, ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review.

Baliga MS.

J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Dec;16(12):1301-8.PMID: 21138390 
2 Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation.

Dang GK, Parekar RR, Kamat SK, Scindia AM, Rege NN.

Phytother Res. 2010 Dec 3. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3345.  PMID: 21132843 

3.The antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities of Phyllanthus emblica are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca(2+) channels.

Mehmood MH, Siddiqi HS, Gilani AH.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Nov 17.  PMID: 21093572

4.Amelioration of alcohol-induced oxidative stress by Emblica officinalis (amla) in rats.

Reddy VD, Padmavathi P, Paramahamsa M, Varadacharyulu NC.

Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2010 Feb;47(1):20-5.PMID: 21086750  
5.Biphasic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-Induced Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect.

Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Bandyopadhyay SK.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:146808. Epub 2010 Nov 7.PMID: 21076542  
6.Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression.

Zhong ZG, Wu DP, Huang JL, Liang H, Pan ZH, Zhang WY, Lu HM.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Nov 10.  PMID: 21073944 
7.Effects of 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose from P. emblica on HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in HepG2.2.15 cell culture.

Xiang YF, Ju HQ, Li S, Zhang YJ, Yang CR, Wang YF.

Virol Sin. 2010 Oct;25(5):375-80. Epub 2010 Oct 8.PMID: 20960184  
8.Antitumour effects of phyllanthus emblica L.: induction of cancer cell apoptosis and Inhibition of in vivo tumour promotion and in vitro invasion of human cancer cells.

Ngamkitidechakul C, Jaijoy K, Hansakul P, Soonthornchareonnon N, Sireeratawong S.

Phytother Res. 2010 Sep;24(9):1405-13.PMID: 20812284  
9.In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kaushik NK, Sahal D.

Parasitol Res. 2010 Sep 1.  PMID: 20809417 
10. Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. affords protection against PTZ-induced seizures, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats.

Golechha M, Bhatia J, Arya DS.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2010 May;48(5):474-8.PMID: 20795364  
11.Determination of glucosinolates in 19 Chinese medicinal plants with spectrophotometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography.

Hu Y, Liang H, Yuan Q, Hong Y.

Nat Prod Res. 2010 Aug;24(13):1195-205.PMID: 20645206  
12.Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): the ayurvedic wonder.

Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21(1):93-105. Review.PMID: 20506691  
13.Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis.

Hazra B, Sarkar R, Biswas S, Mandal N.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 May 13;10:20.PMID: 20462461  
14.Ameliorative effect of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract on ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver of mice.

Chakraborty D, Verma R.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2010;23(1):63-73.PMID: 20442064  
15.Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in edible wild fruits from Nepal.

Chalise JP, Acharya K, Gurung N, Bhusal RP, Gurung R, Skalko-Basnet N, Basnet P.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Jun;61(4):425-32.PMID: 20187713  
16.Spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and its amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract.

Chakraborty D, Verma R.

Acta Pol Pharm. 2009 Nov-Dec;66(6):689-95.PMID: 20050533  
17.Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats.

Kumar NP, Annamalai AR, Thakur RS.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Sep;47(9):737-42. Erratum in: Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Oct;47(10):778. Dosage error in article text. PMID: 19957886  
18.Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis).

Rahman S, Akbor MM, Howlader A, Jabbar A.

Pak J Biol Sci. 2009 Aug 15;12(16):1152-5.PMID: 19899327  
19.The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model.

Kim HY, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Yokozawa T.

Br J Nutr. 2010 Feb;103(4):502-12. Epub 2009 Nov 2.PMID: 19878614  
20.The effect of gallic acid extracted from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica on apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells

Zhong ZG, Huang JL, Liang H, Zhong YN, Zhang WY, Wu DP, Zeng CL, Wang JS, Wei YH.

Zhong Yao Cai. 2009 Jul;32(7):1097-101. Chinese. PMID: 19873740  

21.Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes.

Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Abduz Zahir A, Abdul Rahuman A.

Vet Parasitol. 2009 Dec 23;166(3-4):286-92. Epub 2009 Sep 20.PMID: 19819626  
22.Apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with molecules targeting nuclear factor-kappaB.

Piva R, Penolazzi L, Borgatti M, Lampronti I, Lambertini E, Torreggiani E, Gambari R.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:448-56. Review.PMID: 19723088  
23.Phyllaemblicin B inhibits Coxsackie virus B3 induced apoptosis and myocarditis.

Wang YF, Wang XY, Ren Z, Qian CW, Li YC, Kaio K, Wang QD, Zhang Y, Zheng LY, Jiang JH, Yang CR, Liu Q, Zhang YJ, Wang YF.

Antiviral Res. 2009 Nov;84(2):150-8. Epub 2009 Aug 20.PMID: 19699238  
24.Type I pro-collagen promoting and anti-collagenase activities of Phyllanthus emblica extract in mouse fibroblasts.

Chanvorachote P, Pongrakhananon V, Luanpitpong S, Chanvorachote B, Wannachaiyasit S, Nimmannit U.

J Cosmet Sci. 2009 Jul-Aug;60(4):395-403.PMID: 19691935  
25.Identification of volatile components in Phyllanthus emblica L. and their antimicrobial activity.

Liu X, Zhao M, Luo W, Yang B, Jiang Y.

J Med Food. 2009 Apr;12(2):423-8.PMID: 19459747  
26.Emblica officinalis protects against alcohol-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

Reddy VD, Padmavathi P, Varadacharyulu NCh.

J Med Food. 2009 Apr;12(2):327-33.PMID: 19459733  
27.Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M.

Chem Biol Interact. 2009 Jun 15;180(1):20-30. Epub 2009 Feb 3.PMID: 19428342  
28.Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).

Banot J, Lata G, Jangir OP, Sharma M, Rathore VS, Saini SK, Nagal A.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Mar;47(3):157-62.PMID: 19405379  
29.Anti-coxsackie virus B3 norsesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica.

Liu Q, Wang YF, Chen RJ, Zhang MY, Wang YF, Yang CR, Zhang YJ.

J Nat Prod. 2009 May 22;72(5):969-72.PMID: 19374435  
30.Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from the bark of Phyllanthus emblica L. based on the response surface methodology.

Yang L, Jiang JG, Li WF, Chen J, Wang DY, Zhu L.

J Sep Sci. 2009 May;32(9):1437-44.PMID: 19350583  
31.Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients.

Kusirisin W, Srichairatanakool S, Lerttrakarnnon P, Lailerd N, Suttajit M, Jaikang C, Chaiyasut C.

Med Chem. 2009 Mar;5(2):139-47.PMID: 19275712  
32.Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda.

Datta HS, Mitra SK, Patwardhan B.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Feb 27.  PMID: 19252191  Free Article
33.Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.

Jindal A, Soyal D, Sharma A, Goyal PK.

Integr Cancer Ther. 2009 Mar;8(1):98-105.PMID: 19223372  
34.Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients.

Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL.

Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(1):19-25.PMID: 19222108  
35.Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements.

Poltanov EA, Shikov AN, Dorman HJ, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP, Hiltunen R.

Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23(9):1309-15.PMID: 19172666  
36.Emblica officinalis exerts wound healing action through up-regulation of collagen and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2).

Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Gayathri VS, Mahendran P, Suguna L.

Wound Repair Regen. 2009 Jan-Feb;17(1):99-107.PMID: 19152656  
37.Effect of several flavonoid-containing plant preparations on activity of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channel.

Mironova GD, Shigaeva MI, Belosludtseva NV, Gritsenko EN, Belosludtsev KN, Germanova EL, Lukyanova LD.

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008 Aug;146(2):229-33. English, Russian. PMID: 19145325  
38.Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.

Majeed M, Bhat B, Jadhav AN, Srivastava JS, Nagabhushanam K.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jan 14;57(1):220-5.PMID: 19063633  
39.Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts.

Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL.

Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(6):1209-17.PMID: 19051347  
40.Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice.

Saini A, Sharma S, Chhibber S.

Indian J Med Res. 2008 Aug;128(2):188-93.PMID: 19001683 

41.Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis.

Penolazzi L, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Khan MT, Zennaro M, Piva R, Gambari R.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008 Oct 30;8:59.PMID: 18973662  
42.Chondroprotective Potential of Fruit Extracts of Phyllanthus emblica in Osteoarthritis.

Sumantran VN, Kulkarni A, Chandwaskar R, Harsulkar A, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Sep;5(3):329-335.PMID: 18830448  
43.Pyrogallol, an active compound from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis, regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes in bronchial epithelial cells.

Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bianchi N, Bezzerri V, Mancini I, Giri MG, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2008 Dec 10;8(12):1672-80. Epub 2008 Aug 27.PMID: 18760383  
44.Emblica officinalis aqueous extract ameliorates ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

Verma R, Chakraborty D.

Acta Pol Pharm. 2008 Mar-Apr;65(2):187-94.PMID: 18666424  
45.Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract promotes procollagen production and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

Fujii T, Wakaizumi M, Ikami T, Saito M.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep 2;119(1):53-7. Epub 2008 Jun 6.PMID: 18588964  
46.A novel polyherbal microbicide with inhibitory effect on bacterial, fungal and viral genital pathogens.

Talwar GP, Dar SA, Rai MK, Reddy KV, Mitra D, Kulkarni SV, Doncel GF, Buck CB, Schiller JT, Muralidhar S, Bala M, Agrawal SS, Bansal K, Verma JK.

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Aug;32(2):180-5. Epub 2008 Jun 20.PMID: 18571386  
47.Alterations in DNA, RNA and protein contents in liver and kidney of mice treated with ochratoxin and their amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract.

Verma R, Chakraborty D.

Acta Pol Pharm. 2008 Jan-Feb;65(1):3-9.PMID: 18536167  
48.Emblica officinalis and hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study in Wistar rats.

Sultana S, Ahmed S, Jahangir T.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jun 19;118(1):1-6. Epub 2008 Mar 30.PMID: 18467048  
49.Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts.

Ghosh A, Das BK, Roy A, Mandal B, Chandra G.

J Nat Med. 2008 Apr;62(2):259-62. Epub 2007 Dec 5.PMID: 18404337  
50.Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study.

Panchabhai TS, Ambarkhane SV, Joshi AS, Samant BD, Rege NN.

Phytother Res. 2008 May;22(5):646-50. Erratum in: Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1274. PMID: 18389486  
51.Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells.

Pinmai K, Chunlaratthanabhorn S, Ngamkitidechakul C, Soonthornchareon N, Hahnvajanawong C.

World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Mar 14;14(10):1491-7.PMID: 18330936  
52.Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

Saito K, Kohno M, Yoshizaki F, Niwano Y.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2008 Jun;63(2):65-70. Epub 2008 Jan 31.PMID: 18236159  
53.Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.

C Jagetia G.

J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Mar;40(2):74-81.PMID: 18188408  
54.Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India.

Goud MJ, Komraiah A, Rao KN, Ragan A, Raju VS, Charya MA.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jun 18;5(4):421-6.PMID: 20161967 [PubMed]
55.A new cytotoxic acylated apigenin glucoside from Phyllanthus emblica L.

El-Desouky SK, Ryu SY, Kim YK.

Nat Prod Res. 2008 Jan 10;22(1):91-5.PMID: 17999342  
56.Effect of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis GAERTN.): an ayurvedic preparation on memory deficit rats.

Vasudevan M, Parle M.

Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007 Oct;127(10):1701-7.PMID: 17917427  Free Article
57.Reversal of hepatotoxin-induced pre-fibrogenic events by Emblica officinalis--a histological study.

Mir AI, Kumar B, Tasduq SA, Gupta DK, Bhardwaj S, Johri RK.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Jul;45(7):626-9.PMID: 17821859  
58.Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica.

Habib-ur-Rehman, Yasin KA, Choudhary MA, Khaliq N, Atta-ur-Rahman, Choudhary MI, Malik S.

Nat Prod Res. 2007 Jul 20;21(9):775-81.PMID: 17763100  
59.Modulating effect of Phyllanthus fruit extract against lead genotoxicity in germ cells of mice.

Madhavi D, Devil KR, Rao KK, Reddy PP.

J Environ Biol. 2007 Jan;28(1):115-7.PMID: 17717996  
60.Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress.

Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Tanaka T, Sugino H, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR.

J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Sep 19;55(19):7744-52. Epub 2007 Aug 23.PMID: 17715896  

61.Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats.

Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB.

Mol Vis. 2007 Jul 24;13:1291-7.PMID: 17679931  Free Article
62.Triphala promotes healing of infected full-thickness dermal wound.

Kumar MS, Kirubanandan S, Sripriya R, Sehgal PK.

J Surg Res. 2008 Jan;144(1):94-101. Epub 2007 Jul 27.PMID: 17662304  
63. Separation and evaluation of free radical-scavenging activity of phenol components of Emblica officinalis extract by using an HPTLC-DPPH* method.

Pozharitskaya ON, Ivanova SA, Shikov AN, Makarov VG.

J Sep Sci. 2007 Jun;30(9):1250-4.PMID: 17623464  
64.An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

Ishtiaq M, Hanif W, Khan MA, Ashraf M, Butt AM.

Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Jul 1;10(13):2241-56.PMID: 19070189  
65.Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn.

Anilakumar KR, Nagaraj NS, Santhanam K.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 May;45(5):450-4.PMID: 17569287  
66.Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process.

Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR.

Br J Nutr. 2007 Jun;97(6):1187-95.PMID: 17506915  
67.Differential growth inhibitory effects of W. somnifera root and E. officinalis fruits on CHO cells.

Sumantran VN, Boddul S, Koppikar SJ, Dalvi M, Wele A, Gaire V, Wagh UV.

Phytother Res. 2007 May;21(5):496-9.PMID: 17357174  
68.Alteration of DMBA-induced oxidative stress by additive action of a modified indigenous preparation--Kalpaamruthaa.

Arulkumaran S, Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P.

Chem Biol Interact. 2007 Apr 25;167(2):99-106. Epub 2007 Feb 4.PMID: 17349985  
69.Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation.

Vasudevan M, Parle M.

Physiol Behav. 2007 May 16;91(1):46-54. Epub 2007 Feb 8.PMID: 17343883  
70.Emblica officinalis (Linn.) fruit extract provides protection against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice.

Singh I, Soyal D, Goyal PK.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2006;25(4):643-54.PMID: 17341205  
71.Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

Saeed S, Tariq P.

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jan;20(1):32-5.PMID: 17337425  
72.Analgesic, antipyretic and Ulcerogenic properties of an indigenous formulation--Kalpaamruthaa.

Mythilypriya R, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P.

Phytother Res. 2007 Jun;21(6):574-8.PMID: 17335114  
73.Assessing depression following two ancient Indian interventions: effects of yoga and ayurveda on older adults in a residential home.

Krishnamurthy MN, Telles S.

J Gerontol Nurs. 2007 Feb;33(2):17-23.PMID: 17310659  
74.Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of Triphala against common bacterial isolates from HIV infected patients.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Shankar EM, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar R, Thangaraj R, Vijayananth K, Sheeladevi R, Rao UA.

Phytother Res. 2007 May;21(5):476-80.PMID: 17273983  
75.Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

Dabur R, Gupta A, Mandal TK, Singh DD, Bajpai V, Gurav AM, Lavekar GS.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007 Feb 16;4(3):313-8.PMID: 20161895 [PubMed]

Development and application of RAPD-SCAR marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN.

Dnyaneshwar W, Preeti C, Kalpana J, Bhushan P.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Nov;29(11):2313-6.PMID: 17077537  Free Article

Restorative effect of Kalpaamruthaa, an indigenous preparation, on oxidative damage in mammary gland mitochondrial fraction in experimental mammary carcinoma.

Arulkumaran S, Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P.

Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Oct;291(1-2):77-82. Epub 2006 Sep 5.PMID: 16953336  

Production of tannase from Aspergillus ruber under solid-state fermentation using jamun (Syzygium cumini) leaves.

Kumar R, Sharma J, Singh R.

Microbiol Res. 2007;162(4):384-90. Epub 2006 Jul 25.PMID: 16870410  

Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala.

Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Bhilwade HN, Chaubey RC, Priyadarsini KI, Mishra KP.

Mutat Res. 2006 Oct 10;609(1):17-25. Epub 2006 Jul 24.PMID: 16860592  

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.

Pramyothin P, Samosorn P, Poungshompoo S, Chaichantipyuth C.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct 11;107(3):361-4. Epub 2006 Apr 18.PMID: 16750340  


Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride.

Lee CY, Peng WH, Cheng HY, Chen FN, Lai MT, Chiu TH.

Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(3):471-82.PMID: 16710896  

Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L.

Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2006 Mar;61(1):1-5.PMID: 16688481  

Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats.

Kim HJ, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Tohda C, Rao TP, Juneja LR.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Dec;51(6):413-8.PMID: 16521700  

Protective effect of CardiPro against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

Mohan IK, Kumar KV, Naidu MU, Khan M, Sundaram C.

Phytomedicine. 2006 Mar;13(4):222-9. Epub 2005 Sep 27.PMID: 16492523  

Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system.

Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Dec;24(4):555-63.PMID: 16471318  

Inhibitory effect of Thai plant extracts on P-glycoprotein mediated efflux.

Junyaprasert VB, Soonthornchareonnon N, Thongpraditchote S, Murakami T, Takano M.

Phytother Res. 2006 Jan;20(1):79-81.PMID: 16397849  

Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution.

Ankamwar B, Damle C, Ahmad A, Sastry M.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2005 Oct;5(10):1665-71.PMID: 16245525  

Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbioni C.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):113-8. Epub 2005 Oct 13.PMID: 16226416  

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Rao TP, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Wada E, Yokozawa T.

J Med Food. 2005 Fall;8(3):362-8.PMID: 16176148  

In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and its constituents.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM, Mohan H.

Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):582-6.PMID: 16161061  

Cytotoxic response of breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7 and T 47 D to triphala and its modification by antioxidants.

Sandhya T, Mishra KP.

Cancer Lett. 2006 Jul 18;238(2):304-13. Epub 2005 Aug 30.PMID: 16135398  

Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Emblica officinalis.

Singh I, Sharma A, Nunia V, Goyal PK.

Phytother Res. 2005 May;19(5):444-6.PMID: 16106381  

Chemopreventive action of emblica officinalis on skin carcinogenesis in mice.

Sancheti G, Jindal A, Kumari R, Goyal PK.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005 Apr-Jun;6(2):197-201.PMID: 16101333  Free Article

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants.

Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Jun;56(4):287-91.PMID: 16096138  

Antiatherogenic effects of phyllanthus emblica associated with corilagin and its analogue.

Duan W, Yu Y, Zhang L.

Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005 Jul;125(7):587-91.PMID: 15997216  Free Article

Reversal of fibrogenic events in liver by Emblica officinalis (fruit), an Indian natural drug.

Tasduq SA, Mondhe DM, Gupta DK, Baleshwar M, Johri RK.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jul;28(7):1304-6.PMID: 15997120  Free Article

Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population.

Manjunath NK, Telles S.

Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):683-90.PMID: 15937373  Free Article

Antioxidant activity of DHC-1, an herbal formulation, in experimentally-induced cardiac and renal damage.

Bafna PA, Balaraman R.

Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):216-21.PMID: 15934019  

Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver toxicity.

Tasduq SA, Kaisar P, Gupta DK, Kapahi BK, Maheshwari HS, Jyotsna S, Johri RK.

Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):193-7.PMID: 15934014  

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity and DNA synthesis in Wistar rats.

Sultana S, Ahmad S, Khan N, Jahangir T.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 May;43(5):430-6.PMID: 15900908  101.

Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug.

Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP.

Cancer Lett. 2006 Jan 18;231(2):206-14.PMID: 15899544  

Screening of antioxidants from medicinal plants for cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin toxicity.

Wattanapitayakul SK, Chularojmontri L, Herunsalee A, Charuchongkolwongse S, Niumsakul S, Bauer JA.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jan;96(1):80-7.PMID: 15667600  

The in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Triphala--an Indian herbal drug.

Kaur S, Michael H, Arora S, Hrknen PL, Kumar S.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 10;97(1):15-20. Epub 2004 Dec 25.PMID: 15652269  

Modulation of haematopoetic system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica officinalis gaertn and its protective role against gamma-radiation induced damages in mice.

Hari Kumar KB, Sabu MC, Lima PS, Kuttan R.

J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Dec;45(4):549-55.PMID: 15635265  Free Article

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

Banu SM, Selvendiran K, Singh JP, Sakthisekaran D.

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2004 Nov;23(11):527-31.PMID: 15625778  

Safety of a Novel Botanical Extract Formula for Ameliorating Allergic rhinitis. Part II.

Amit A, Joshua AJ, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2005;15(3):193-204.PMID: 20021083  

[Studies on chemical constituents in fruits of Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus emblica]

Zhang LZ, Zhao WH, Guo YJ, Tu GZ, Lin S, Xin LG.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Oct;28(10):940-3. Chinese. PMID: 15620182  

Emblica officinalis reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early promotional events of primary hepatocarcinogenesis.

Sultana S, Ahmed S, Sharma S, Jahangir T.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;56(12):1573-9.PMID: 15586980  

Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

Pratibha N, Saxena VS, Amit A, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.

Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51.PMID: 15573692  

A study on degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) during cooking.

Nisha P, Singhal RS, Pandit AB.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Aug;55(5):415-22.PMID: 15545050  

Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Perianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Joseph A, Christina AJ.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Nov;95(1):83-5.PMID: 15374611  

Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

D'Souza P, Amit A, Saxena VS, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ.

Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(3):99-109.PMID: 15366786  

Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Avinash KD.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 May;42(5):499-503.PMID: 15233476  

Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis: implications for the prevention of sugar cataract.

Suryanarayana P, Kumar PA, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB.

Mol Vis. 2004 Mar 12;10:148-54.PMID: 15031705  Free Article

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Amalkadi Ghrita against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):229-32.PMID: 15013185  

Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal phytomedicine.

Tasaduq SA, Singh K, Sethi S, Sharma SC, Bedi KL, Singh J, Jaggi BS, Johri RK.

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Dec;22(12):639-45.PMID: 14992325  

Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Nagao T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Okabe H, Kouno I.

Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Feb;27(2):251-5.PMID: 14758047  Free Article

Emblica officinalis causes myocardial adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats.

Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK, Gupta YK, Gupta SK, Maulik SK.

Phytother Res. 2004 Jan;18(1):54-60.PMID: 14750202  

Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.

Amit A, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ.

Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2003;29(3):107-15.PMID: 14708456  

Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin.

Ganju L, Karan D, Chanda S, Srivastava KK, Sawhney RC, Selvamurthy W.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;57(7):296-300.



Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae).

Nosl'ov G, Mokr J, Hassan KM.

Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):583-9.PMID: 13678247  

Induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lines by Emblica officinalis polyphenols and its effect on chemical carcinogenesis.

Rajeshkumar NV, Pillai MR, Kuttan R.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jun;22(2):201-12.PMID: 12866570  

[Study on anti-HIV drugs in Egyptian medicinal plants]

Sun XF, Wang W, Du GY, Lu WB.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Sep;27(9):649-53, 679. Review. Chinese. No abstract available. PMID: 12866564  

Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages.

Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Deepti P, Vandana M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W.

Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):430-3.PMID: 12722158  

Protective effect of a polyherbal formulation (Immu-21) against cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice.

Jena GB, Nemmani KV, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):306-10.PMID: 12722129  

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts.

Alam MI, Gomes A.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):75-80.PMID: 12686445  

Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat.

Khandelwal S, Shukla LJ, Shanker R.

Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 May;40(5):564-70.PMID: 12622203  

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.

Arora S, Kaur K, Kaur S.

Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 2003;Suppl 1:295-300.PMID: 12616620  

Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.

Amit A, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ.

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2003;13(4):253-61.PMID: 20021150  

Gastroprotective effects of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis on in vivo test models in rats.

Al-Rehaily AJ, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-Sohaibani MO, Rafatullah S.

Phytomedicine. 2002 Sep;9(6):515-22.PMID: 12403160  

Emblica cascading antioxidant: a novel natural skin care ingredient.

Chaudhuri RK.

Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):374-80. Review.PMID: 12239434  

Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study.

Sairam K, Rao ChV, Babu MD, Kumar KV, Agrawal VK, K Goel RK.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Sep;82(1):1-9.PMID: 12169398  

Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property.

Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):155-60.PMID: 12065146  

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.

Khan MT, Lampronti I, Martello D, Bianchi N, Jabbar S, Choudhuri MS, Datta BK, Gambari R.

Int J Oncol. 2002 Jul;21(1):187-92.PMID: 12063567  

Two new acylated flavanone glycosides from the leaves and branches of Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Jun;50(6):841-3.PMID: 12045344  Free Article

Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study.

Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P, Pauline T, Sharma SK, Sarada SK, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):5-10.PMID: 12020921  

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

Haque R, Bin-Hafeez B, Ahmad I, Parvez S, Pandey S, Raisuddin S.

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Dec;20(12):643-50.PMID: 11936579  

The in vitro antimutagenic activity of Triphala--an Indian herbal drug.

Kaur S, Arora S, Kaur K, Kumar S.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Apr;40(4):527-34.PMID: 11893411  

Phyllanemblinins A-F, new ellagitannins from Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I.

J Nat Prod. 2001 Dec;64(12):1527-32.PMID: 11754604  

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia.

Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jan;79(1):81-7.PMID: 11744299 

Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I.

J Nat Prod. 2001 Jul;64(7):870-3.PMID: 11473414  

New phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 May;49(5):537-40.PMID: 11383602  Free Article

Novel norsesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I.

J Nat Prod. 2000 Nov;63(11):1507-10.PMID: 11087593  

[Ethnopharmacology of Phyllanthus emblica L.]

Xia Q, Xiao P, Wan L, Kong J.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1997 Sep;22(9):515-8, 525, 574. Review. Chinese. PMID: 11038937  

The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from indomethacin induced gastric ulcer.

Bandyopadhyay SK, Pakrashi SC, Pakrashi A.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 May;70(2):171-6.PMID: 10771207  

Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

Jeena KJ, Joy KL, Kuttan R.

Cancer Lett. 1999 Feb 8;136(1):11-6.PMID: 10211933  

Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

Ihantola-Vormisto A, Summanen J, Kankaanranta H, Vuorela H, Asmawi ZM, Moilanen E.

Planta Med. 1997 Dec;63(6):518-24.PMID: 9434603  

Hepatoprotective studies on Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and quercetin.

Gulati RK, Agarwal S, Agrawal SS.

Indian J Exp Biol. 1995 Apr;33(4):261-8. Erratum in: Indian J Exp Biol 1995 Aug;33(8):precedi. PMID: 7558182  

Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase.

el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Kusumoto IT, Kadota S, Hattori M, Namba T.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1995 Apr;43(4):641-8.PMID: 7541317  

Augmentation of murine natural killer cell and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity activities by Phyllanthus emblica, a new immunomodulator.

Suresh K, Vasudevan DM.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1994 Aug;44(1):55-60.PMID: 7990505  

Relative efficiency of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract and ascorbic acid in modifying lead and aluminium-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow.

Dhir H, Roy AK, Sharma A.

Environ Mol Mutagen. 1993;21(3):229-36.PMID: 8462526  

Relative protection given by extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and an equivalent amount of vitamin C against a known clastogen--caesium chloride.

Ghosh A, Sharma A, Talukder G.

Food Chem Toxicol. 1992 Oct;30(10):865-9.PMID: 1427509  

Modification of metal-induced micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes by Phyllanthus fruit extract and ascorbic acid.

Roy AK, Dhir H, Sharma A.

Toxicol Lett. 1992 Aug;62(1):9-17.PMID: 1509511  

Modifying role of Phyllanthus emblica and ascorbic acid against nickel clastogenicity in mice.

Dhir H, Agarwal K, Sharma A, Talukder G.

Cancer Lett. 1991 Jul 26;59(1):9-18.PMID: 1878862  

Records of usage or assays in Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae). I. Subgenera Isocladus, Kirganelia, Cicca and Emblica.

Unander DW, Webster GL, Blumberg BS.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct;30(3):233-64. Review.PMID: 2259214  

Modification of clastogenicity of lead and aluminium in mouse bone marrow cells by dietary ingestion of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract.

Dhir H, Roy AK, Sharma A, Talukder G.

Mutat Res. 1990 Jul;241(3):305-12.PMID: 2366810  

[Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica juice on formation of N-nitrosomorpholine in vitro and N-nitrosoproline in rat and human]

Hu JF.

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1990 May;24(3):132-5. Chinese. PMID: 2253517  

Anna Pavala Sindhooram--an antiatherosclerotic Indian drug.

Shanmugasundaram KR, Seethapathy PG, Shanmugasundaram ER.

J Ethnopharmacol. 1983 May;7(3):247-65.PMID: 6876850  

A tannin from the Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) with a protective action on ascorbic acid.

Damodaran M, Nair KR.

Biochem J. 1936 Jun;30(6):1014-20. No abstract available. PMID: 16746112

Further References
# "Phyllanthus emblica information from NPGS/GRIN". US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
# Ganju L, Karan D, Chanda S, Srivastava KK, Sawhney RC, Selvamurthy W (Sep 2003). "Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin". Biomed Pharmacother. 57 (7): 296300. doi:10.1016/S0753-3322(03)00095-7. PMID 14499177. 
# Tarwadi K, Agte V (Aug 2007). "Antioxidant and micronutrient potential of common fruits available in the Indian subcontinent". Int J Food Sci Nutr 58 (5): 3419. doi:10.1080/09637480701243905. PMID 17558726. 
# Samhita C. Ed., translation by the Shree Gulabkunverba Society, Volume 4. Chikitsa Sthana, Jamnagar, India: 1949
# Indian Ministry of Health and Family Planning. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India. Part I. 1st ed. Delhi, 1978.
# Dr.KM Nadkarni, The Indian Materia Medica, Vol.I, pg 480-484
# Prof P.V Sharma, Dravya Guna Vigyana, Vol II, pg 758-760
# The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India, Part I, Vol.I, pg 4-5